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214 Cards in this Set

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Social perception
The process through which we seek to know and understand other persons
Four aspects of social perception
1. nonverbal communication
2. attribution
3. impression formation
4. How accurate is it
Nonverbal communication
Communication that does not involve spoken language.
Four basic types of nonverbal communication
1. Facial expressions
2. eye contact
3. body language
4. touching
Facial expressions
Not universal.
Types apparent from early childhood are anger, sadness, happiness, disgust, fear, surprise.
Eye contact
High level is interpreted with positive feelings. But staring is interpreted as anger or hostility
Emblems
Body language carrying specific meanings in different cultures.
Touching
When appropriate, produces positve reactions.
Five nonverbal cues in recognizing deception
1. initial microexpressions
2. interchannel discrepancies
3. speech may change pitch, become hesitant, or have errors
4. eye contact may change or pupils dilate
5. exaggerated facial expressions
Cognitive factors affecting detection of deception
We tend to concentrate on either words or nonverbal cues separately. When we are motivated to detect deception, we concentrate more on words. But words are less effective in detecting deception. So the more motivated we are, the less effective we may be
Attribution
Process by which we seek to identify the causes of others' behavior, lasting traits, motivations, and intentions
Two theories of attribution
1. Correspondent inference (Jones and Davis)
2. Theory of causal attribution (Kelly)
Theory of correspondent inference
Theory describing how we use others' behavior to make inferences about their stable dispositions.

We are most likely to ascribe traits to behavior when the behavior
1. is freely chosen
2. yields noncommon effects - those which could not be produced by any other apparent cause
3. Is low in social desirability
Theory of causal attributions
Theory which seeks to determine whether others' behavior stems from internal or external causes.

Internal - consistency is high, but others are low
External - All factors are high
Combination - Consensus is low, but others are high
Consensus
In causal attribution theory, extent to which other persons react to some stimulus in the same manner as the person we are considering
Consistency
In causal attribution theory, extent to which an individual responds to a given stimulus or situation in the same way on different occasions
Distinctiveness
In causal attribution theory, extent to which an individual responds in the same manner to different stimuli or events
Intenal causes in causal attribution theory
Consensus and distinctiveness are low, consistency is high
Extenal causes in causal attribution
Consensus, distinctiveness and consistency are all high
Combination of internal and external causes in causal attribution theory
Consensus is low, distinctiveness and consistency are high
Discounting
The tendency to attach less importance to one potential cause of some behavior when other potential causes are also present.
Augmenting
The tendency to attach greater importance to potential causes of behavior if the behavior occurs despite the presence of some other inhibitory cause
Regulatory focus theory
A theory suggesting that in regulating their own behavior in order to attain desired goals, individuals adopt one of two different perspectives: a promotion focus, in which they emphasize the presence or absence of positive outcomes; or a prevention focus, in which they emphasize negative outcomes.

When people have a promotion focus, they are less likely to discount potential causal factors just because another is present.

When people have a prevention focus, they are quite willing to eliminate (discount) potential causes of others' behavior.
Three attribution errors
1. Correspondence bias
2. Actor-observer effect
3. Self-serving bias
Correspondence bias (fundamental attribution error)
The tendency to explain others' actions as stemming from (corresonding to) internal dispositions even in the presence of clear situational causes. Attributing causes to internal traits rather than external factors.
We tend to perceive others acting as they do because they are that kind of person, rather than because of the many external factors which may affect their behavior. This bias seems to be stronger in Western, individualistic cultures, rather than Asian, collectivistic cultures.
Actor-observer effect
The tendency to attribute our own behavior mainly to situational causes but the behavior of others mainly to internal (dispositional) causes. You fell, I was pushed.
Self-serving bias
The tendency to attribute one's own positive outcomes to internal causes (one's own traits or characteristics) but negative outcomes or events to external causes (chance or task difficulty). I'm good. You're lucky.

The strength of the self-serving bias differs across cultures, being stronger in Western societies, which are individualistic, than in Asian cultures, which are collectivistic.
How does attribution theory apply to depression.
Depressed persons often show a pattern of attributions opposite to that of the self-serving bias: they attribute positive events to external causes and negative ones to internal causes.

Although many factors play a role in depression, the self-defeating pattern of attributions suggest that depressed people do not have the self-serving bias, believing instead that positive outcomes are caused by temporary, external causes, and that negative outcomes are caused lasting internal attributes. This creates a sense of loss of control over one's life.
How does attribution theory apply to prejudice?
In may situations it is difficult to know whether negative outcomes experienced by minority persons are the result of prejudice or other factors. Because of this uncertainty, when such persons attribute these outcomes to prejudice, some people conclude that they are wrong, and so think less highly of them.
Impression formation
The process through which we form impressions of others
Asch's research on central and peripheral traits
1. Social perceptions, such as attribution, require a lot of mental work. In contrast, forming first impressions seems to be relatively effortless.

2. Most people are concerned with making good first impressions on others because they believe that these impressions will exert lasting effects.

3. Research on impression formation suggests that first impressions are important. Asch's classic research on impression formation also indicates that our impressions of others involve more than simple summaries of their traits.

Asch's research involved showing people lists of characteristics. In some lists he varied only one word, such as warm to cold. The first impressions people formed were greatly varied between the two lists. He also did lists where the order of the words was changed. Here, first impressions were affected based upon the first or second word listed.

Suggested that we do not form impressions simply by adding together all the traits we observe in other persons. Rather, we perceive these traits in relation to one another so that the traits cease to exist individually, and therefore become part of an integrated whole.

Central traits - those core traits which strongly shape the overall impression of someone. If a central trait is perceived, it colors the overall impression of that person.

Peripheral traits - those traits which do not necessarily paint an overall impression of someone.
How are impressions of others formed?
We combine diverse information about others into unified impressions. We combine this information into a weighted average, in which each piece of information about another person is weighted in terms of its relative importance.
Four factors which influence impression formation
The factors which influence this relative weighing are:

1. Source of input - trusted sources are given more weight.
2. Whether information is positive or negative - negative information is weighted more heavily.
3. The extent to which information describes behavior that is unusal or extreme - the more unusual, the more heavily weighted.
4. The sequence of input - earlier received information is weighted more heavily.
Exemplars and abstractions.
How do these influence impression formation?
1. Exemplars - concrete examples of behaviors that have been performed that are consistent with a given trait.

2. Abstractions - mental summaries that are abstracted from repeated observations of others' behavior.

One model of impression formation suggests that initially our impressions of others consist mainly of examples of behaviors that show that are indicative of specific traits. After we have more experience with another person, however, our impressions shift toward consisting mainly of abstractions - mental summaries of the person's behavior on many occasions.
Impression management
Efforts by individuals to produce favorable first impressions on others.
Two major types of impression management
Many techniques are used for impression management, but most fall under two major headings:

1. self-enhancement and
2. other-enhancement.
Self-enhancement technique of impression management
Efforts to increase an one's own appeal to others
Other enhancement technique of impression management
Efforts to make the target person feel good in various ways. Flattery is the most commonly used tactic of other-enhancement. Showing a high level of agreement or interest in another person is other-enhancement.
Social psychology
Social psychology is the scientific field that seeks to understand the nature and causes of individual behavior and thought in social situations.
Social psychology is scientific in nature because includes
It is scientific in nature because it adopts the values and methods used in other fields of science which include:

1. Accuracy
2. Objectivity
3. Skepticism
4. Open-mindedness - commitment to changing one's views if existing evidence suggests that these views are inaccurate.
Evolutionary social psychology
An area of research that seeks to investigate the potential role of genetic factors in various aspects of social behavior. We may find certain persons attractive as mates because they represent superior reproductive capacity. We may be opposed to sexual infidelity because males cannot then be sure offspring are his, or females may fear loss of a protective or supportive male.
Two ways social information is processed
1. Heuristically - a quick-and-dirty manner designed to reduce effort, or

2. Systematically - a more careful, effortful manner.
Systematic observation
A method of research in which behavior is systematically observed and recorded.
Naturalistic observation
Observation of behavior in natural settings. Observer avoids influencing behavior in any way.
Survey method
A method of research in which a large number of persons answer questions about their attitudes or behavior.

1. Sampling must be representative
2. Wording can exert strong effect on the way question is answered.
Multicultural perspective
A focus on understanding the cultural and ethnic factors that influence social behavior.
Experimental method
A method of research in which an experimenter systematically changes one or more factors (the independent variables) to determine whether such variations affect one or more other factors (dependent variables).
Random assignment
The participants in research experiments have an equal chance of being exposed to each level of the independent variable; a basic requirement for conducting valid experiments
Non-confounding of variables
All factors other than the independent variable that might also affect behavior must be held constant.
Experimenter effects
Unintended effects on participants' behavior produced by researchers
Double-blind study
Used to eliminate experimenter effects. The research assistants who have contact with participants do not know the hypothesis under investigation
External validity
The extent to which findings of an experiment can be generalized to real-life social situations and perhaps to persons different from those who participated in the research. Although it is a very powerful research tool, the experimental method is not perfect - questions concerning external validity often arise. Further, it cannot be used in some situations because of practical or ethical considerations.
Inferential statistics
A special form of mathematics that allows us to evaluate the likelihood that a given pattern of research results occurred by chance alone. Used to determine whether results are significant, or unlikely to a certain percentage.
Theory
Frameworks constucted by scientists in any field in an effort to explain why certainevents or processes occur as they do.

The procedure for building a theory is:

1. A theory is proposed,
2. The theory makes predictions about observable events,
3. The predictions (hypothoses) are tested by actual research,
4. If the results are consistent with the theory, confidence in accuracy is increased. Otherwise, the theory is modified and further tests are conducted.
5. The theory is either accepted or rejected.

Theories are never proven in any final, ultimate sense. They are always open to testing and are accepted with more or less confidence.

Research is never undertaken to prove or verify a theory. It is performed to gather evidence relevant to the theory.
Deception in scientific research
A technique whereby researches withhold information about the purposes or procedures of a study from persons participating in it. Deception should never be used to persuade people to take part in a study. Temporary deception is acceptable provided two basic safeguards are employed.

1. Informed consent
2. Debriefing
Informed consent
A procedure in which research participants are provided with as much information as possible about a research project before deciding whether to participate in it.
Debriefing
Procedures at the conclusion of a research session in which participants are given full information about the nature of the research and the hypotheses under investigation.
Social cognition
The manner in which we interpret, analyze, remember, and use information about the social world.
Affect
Our current feelings and moods
Schemas
Mental frameworks centering around a specific theme that help us to organize social information. Once established, schemas save mental effort because they tell us what to expect in a given situation, how people are likely to behave, what will happen and in what order.
Three types of schemas
1. PERSON SCHEMA - Mental frameworks suggesting that certain traits and behaviors go together and that individuals having them represent certain types.

2. ROLE SCHEMA - Contain information about how persons playing specific roles generally act, and what they are like.

3. EVENT SCHEMA - Also known as scripts. Such schemas indicate what is expected to happen in a given setting.
Three ways schemas influence social thought
1. Attention
2. Encoding
3. Retrieval
Attention (in schemas)
What information we notice. Schemas act as filters. Only information consistent with the schema registers and enters our consciousness. Information that does not fit a schema is ignored, unless it is so extreme that it can't help but be noticed.
Encoding (in schemas)
Refers to the processes through which information we notice gets stored in memory. Information consistent with schemas is easier to remember than inconsistent information. Before schemas are formed, however, inconsistent information is more readily encoded.
Retrieval (in schemas)
Refers to the processes through which we recover information from memory. Schemas determine precisely what information is actually brought to mind.
Perserverance effect (in schemas)
The tendency for beliefs and schemas to remain unchanged even in the face of contradictory information.

While schemas help us to process information, they often persist in the face of disconfirming information. As a result, they can distort our understanding of the social world.
Self-fulfilling prophecy (in schemas)
Schemas can also exert self-confirming effects, causing us to behave in ways that confirm them.

Predictions that, in a sense, make themselves come true.
Information overload
Instances in which our ability to process information is exceeded. Trying to drive and talk at the same time.

Because of this, we try to adopt strategies to stretch our cognitive resources. Such strategies must meet two requirements: They must provide a quick and simple way of dealing with large amounts of information, and they must work - they must be reasonably accurate much of the time
Heuristics
Simple rules for making complex decisions or drawing inferences in a rapid and seemingly effortless manner.
Representativeness heuristic
A strategy for making judgments based on the extent to which current stimuli or events resemble other stimuli or categories. The more similar an individual is to typical members of a given group, the more likely she or he is to belong to that group.

A representative heuristic often leads to errors in thinking because we tend to ignore base rates - the frequency with which given events or patterns occur in the total population.
Availability heuristic
The easier it is to bring something to mind, the greater its importance or relevance to our judgments or decisions.
Two rules for judging the importance of information in availability heuristic
1. How easily it comes to mind
2. how much we remember.

Which of these rules we follow depends strongly on the kind of judgment we are making.

Judgments concerning emotions or feelings rely more on the ease with which the information comes to mind.

Judgments concerning facts or information rely more on the the amount of information we can bring to mind.
Priming
Increased availabilty of information in memory or consciousness resulting from exposure to specific stimuli or events.
Automatic processing (in social thought)
This occurs when, after extensive experience with a task or type of information, we reach the state where we can perform the task or process the information in a seemingly effortless, automatic, and nonconscious manner
Six sources of error in social cognition
1. Negativity bias
2. Optimistic bias
3. Thinking too much
4. Counterfactual thinking
5. Magical thinking
6. Thought suppression
Negativity bias (as source of error in social cognition)
The fact that we show greater sensitivity to negative information than to positive information.
Planning fallacy
The tendency to make optimistic predictions concerning how long a given task will take for completion. This is part of the optimistic bias.

The planning fallacy seems to stem from the tendency to focus on the future while ignoring related past events, and also from motivations to have tasks completed quickly.

The optimistic bias also includes a tendency on the part of most persons to believe that they are more likely than others to experience positive events, and less likely to experience negative events. One major exception to this is when individuals expect to receive negative feedback that has important consequences, they tend to believe that they are more likely than others to experience negative outcomes.
Bracing for loss (as part of the optimistic bias)
When one expects to receive feedback that may be negative in nature and that has important consequences, they brace for the worst and show a reversal of the usual optimistic pattern. They tend to be pessimistic, showing an enhanced tendency to anticipate negative outcomes.
Cost of thinking too much (as a source of error in social cognition)
When individuals think too deeply about some topic, they may become confused about the factors that actually play a role in their behavior, with the result that they make less accurate judgments or decisions.
Counterfactual thinking (as social cognition error)
The tendency to imagine outcomes in a situation other than those that actually occurred, to think about what might have been.

We tend to feel more sympathy for people who experience harm as a result of unusual actions on their part than as a result of more typical behavior.

We tend to regret missed opportunities, things we did not do, more than things we did do.
Upward counterfactual thinking
Comparing their current outcomes with more favorable ones they can imagine, the result may be strong feelings of dissatisfaction or envy, especially if they do not feel capable of obtaining better outcomes in the future.
Inaction inertia (as effect of counterfactual thinking)
This occurs when an individual has decided not to take some action and so loses the opportunity to gain a positive outcome. As a result, he or she becomes less likely to take similar actions in the future, especially if these actions will yield smaller gains.
Magical thinking (as social cognition error)
Thinking involving assumptions that don't hold up to rational scrutiny. For example, the notion that things that resemble one another share fundamental properties.
Law of contagion (as part of magical thinking)
When two objects touch, they pass properties to one another, and that the effects of contact may last well beyond the end of the contact between them.
Law of similarity (as part of magical thinking)
Things that resemble one another share basic properties.
Thought suppression (as part of social cognition error)
Efforts to prevent certain thoughts from entering consciousness.
Two steps of thought suppression
Monitoring process - An autonomic process which searches for evidence that unwanted throughts are about to intrude. This is an early warning system.

Operating process - effortful, conscious attempts to distract oneself by finding something else to think about. This is an active prevention system.
Rebound effect (in thought suppression)
Although effots at thought suppression are often successful, sometimes they result in a rebound effect, in which such thoughts actually increase in frequency. Persons high in reactance are more likely than those low in reactance to experience such effects.
Explain the interplay between affect and cognition
Our feelings and moods (affect) strongly influence several aspects of cognition (the ways we process, store, and remember), and cognition, in turn, exerts strong effects on our feelings and moods.
Two ways that mood effects memory (cognition)
1. Mood-dependent memory
2. Mood congruence effects
Mood-dependent memory
The fact that what we remember while in a given mood may be determined in part by what we learned when previously in that mood.
Mood congruence effects
Our tendency to store or remember positive information when in a positive mood and negative information when in a negative mood.
Mental contamination
A process in which our judgments, emotions, or behaviors are influenced by mental processing that is unconscious and uncontrollable. Once we are exposed to emotion-generating information, we cannot ignore it, no matter how hard we try. This is particularly true of information that evokes emotional reactions.
Three ways that cognition can influence affect
1. Two-factor theory of emotion - We often don't know our own feelings, so we infer them from the external world

2. Activation of schemas containing a strong affective component.

3. Efforts to regulate our emotions and feelings
Two ways in which we try to cognitively regulate our negative emotions in order to influence our mood
1. Engage in counterfactual thinking to make negative outcomes seem inevitable and so less distressing.

2. Give in to temptation by consciously choosing to engage in activities that may be damaging in the long run but make us feel better in the short run.
Attitudes
Evaluations of various or any aspects of the social world. The extent to which we have favorable or unfavorable reactions to issues, ideas, persons, social groups, or objects
Attitude ambivalence
Refers to the fact that we often have positive and negative evaluatoins of the same attitude object; thus, our attitude toward it is ambivalent.
Four ways in which attitudes develop
1. Classical conditioning - learning based on association
2. Instrumental conditioning - learning to hold the right views
3. Observational learning - learning by example
4. Social comparison
Social learning
The process through which we acquire new information, forms of behavior, or attitudes from other persons.
Classical conditioning
A basic form of learning in which one stimulus, initially neutral, acquires the capacity ot evoke reactions through repeated pairing with another stimulus. In a sense, one stimulus becomes a signal for the presentation or occurrence of the other.
Subliminal conditioning
A form of classical conditioning that occurs through exposure to stimuli that are below individuals' threshhold of conscious awareness.
Instrumental conditioning
Basic form of learning in which responses that lead to positive outcomes or that permit avoidance of negative outcomes are strengthened or reinforced. This is also known as operant conditioning.
Observational learning
Basic form of learning in which individuals acquire new forms of behavior or thought through observing others.
Social comparison
Attitudes are also formed on the basis of social comparison - our tendency to compare ourselves with others to determine whether our view of social reality is or is not correct. In order to be similar to others we like or admire, we often accept the attitudes they hold.

Social comparison is the process through which we compare ourselves to others in order to determine whether our view of social reality is or is not correct.

Our attitudes are shaped by social information from others, coupled with our own desire to be similar to people we like or respect.
Situational constraints (as a factor preventing attitude expression)
Moderate the relationship between attitude and behavior. Prevent attitudes from being expressed in overt behavior.

So we tend to prefer situations that allow us to express our attitudes, which may further strengthen those attitudes.
Three aspects of attitudes themselves which influence behavior
1. Attitude origin
2. Attitude strength
3. Attitude specificity
Attitude origins
How attitudes are formed. Attitudes formed on the basis of direct experience are easier to bring to mind, which increases their impact on behavior.
Attitude strength
The stronger attitudes are, the greater their impact on behavior. Strength of an attitude depends on such factors as: intensity, importance, knowledge and accessibility of the attitude.

In terms of the importance of an attitude, the extent to which an individual cares about a given attitude, a key element is vested interest, the extent to which the attitude is personally relevant to the individual who holds it, in that the object or issue to which ir refers has important consequences for this person.
Theory of reasoned action
A theory suggesting that the decision to engage in a particular behavior is the result of a rational process in which behavioral options are considered, consequences or outcomes of each are evaluated, and a decision is reached to act or not to act. That decision is then reflected in behavior intentions, which strongly influence overt behavior.
Theory of planned behavior
An extension of the theory of reasoned action, suggesting that in addtion to attitudes toward a given behavior and subjective norms about it, individuals also consider perceived behavioral control - their ability to perform the behavior.
Three factors which influence behavioral intentions
Behavioral intentions are influenced by three key factors:
1. the person's attitudes toward the behavior in question, whether they think it will yield positive or negative results,
2. the person's belief about how others will evaluate this action,
3. PERCEIVED BEHAVIORAL CONTROL - the extent to which a person perceives a behavior as hard or easy to accomplish.
Attitude-to-behavior process model
A model of how attitudes guide behavior that emphasizes the influence of both attitudes and stored knowledge of what is appropriate in a given situation on an individual's definition of the present situation. This definition, in turn, influences overt behavior.

This model is for situations where we have to act quickly.

Some event activates an attitude. The attitude influences our perceptions of the attitude object. At the same time, our knowledge about what's appropriate in a given situation, social norms, is also activated. Together, the attitude and this previously stored information about what's appropriate or expected shape our definition of the event. This definition, in turn, influences our behavior.
Persuation
Efforts to change others' attitudes through the use of various kinds of messages.
Persuation involves the following elements
Some source directs some type of message (the communication) to some person or group of persons, the audience.
Communicators who are credible
Seem to know what they are talking about or are expert are more persuasive than nonexperts
Communicators who are attractive
are more persuasive than communicators who are unattractive
Messages that do not appear to be designed to change our attitudes
are often less successful in this respect than ones that seem intended to reach this goal.
In terms of persuasion, people who are distracted
are more prone to be persuaded.
Two basic ways we process persuasive messages
1. systemic processing (central route)
2. heuristic processing (peripheral route)
Systemic processing
Processing of information in a persuasive message that involves careful consideration of message content and ideas.
Central route (to persuation)
Attitude change resulting from systematic processing of information presented in persuasive messages.
Heuristic processing
Processing of information in a persuasive message that involves the use of simple rules of thumb or mental shortcuts.
Peripheral route (to persuation)
Attitude change that occurs in response to persuation cues - information concerning the expertise or status of would-be persuaders.
Elaboration likelihood model of persuation
A theory suggesting that persuation can occur in either of two distinct ways, which differ in the amount of cognitive effort or elaboration they require.

We engage in the effortful type of processing (systemic processing) when our capacity to process information relating to the persuasive message is high or when we are motivated to do so, when the issue is important to us.

We engage in the less effortful type of processing (heuristic processing) when we lack the ability or capacity to process more carefully ( we must make up our minds quickly, we have little knowledge about the issue) or when our motivation to perform such cognitive work is low (the issue is unimportant or has little effect on us).
Three motives for engaging in systematic processing
ACCURACY MOTIVATION - the desire to form an accurate view of the world.

DEFENSIVE MOTIVATION - the desire to hold views that are consistent with our own interests or with other atitudes we view as central to our self-concept, the person we are, etc.

IMPRESSION MOTIVATION - We want our attitudes to put us in a favorable light, to make a good impression on others.
Five factors that enhance our ability to resist even highly skilled persuation
1. reactance
2. forwarning
3. selective avoidance
4. active defense of existing attitudes
5. biased assimilation and attitude polarization
Reactance (in persuation)
Negative reaction to threats to one's personal freedom (getting you to do what someone else wants you to do). Often increases resistance to persuasion. Often results in the adoption of views opposite to those the would-be persuader wants you to adopt.
Forewarning (in persuation)
Advance knowledge that one is about to become the target of an attempt at persuasion; often increases resistance to the persuasion that follows.

Forewarning provides an opportunity to formulate counterarguments and provides more time to recall relevant facts that may prove useful in refuting a persuasive message.
Selective avoidance
Tendency to direct attention away from information that challenges existing attitudes; increases resistance to persuasion.
Selective exposure
Part of selective avoidance. The tendency to ignore or avoid information that contradicts our attitudes while actively seeking information consistent with them. Such selective exposure helps ensure that are attitudes remain largely intact for long periods of time.
Biased assimilation
The tendency to evaluate information that disconfirms our existing views as less convincing or reliable than information that confirms these views.
Attitude polarization
The tendency to evaluate mixed evidence or information in such a way that it strengthens our initial views and makes them more extreme.
Cognitive dissonance
An unpleasant internal state that results when individuals notice inconsistency between two or more of their attitudes or between their attitudes and their behavior.
Three direct tactics to reduce cognitive dissonance
These focus on the attitudes-behavior discrepancies that are causing the dissonance.

1. We can change our attitude or our behavior so that these are more consistent with each other.

2. We may acquire new information that supports our attitude or behavior.

3. TRIVIALIZATION - A technique for reducing dissonance by mentally minimizing the importance of attitudes or behavior that are inconsistent with each other. We can decide that the discrepancies really don't matter.
Indirect tactics to reduce cognitive dissonance
INDIRECT TACTICS TO REDUCE DISSONANCE leave the basic discrepancy between attitudes and behavior intact but reduce the unpleasant negative feelings generated by dissonance. Most likely to occur when an attitude-behavior discrepancy involves important attitudes or self-beliefs.
Self-affirmation
An indirect way of reducting dissonance by restoring positive self-evaluations that are threatened by cognitive dissonance. One would not try to close the gap between attitude and behavior, but tries to feel good in spite of the gap.
Induced compliance
Situations in which individuals are somehow induced to say or do things inconsistent with their true attitudes. This is also known as forced compliance. This increases cognitive dissonance.
Hypocricy (in cognitive dissonance)
Publicly advocating some attitude or behavior and then acting in a way that is inconsistent with this espoused attitude or behavior.

Inducing individuals to advocate certain attitudes or behaviors and then reminding them of their hypocrisy can be a powerful tool for inducing strong dissonance and thus promoting beneficial changes in behavior.
Less leads to more effect
The fact that offering individuals small rewards for engaging in counterattitudinal behavior often produces more dissonance, and so more attitude change, than offering them larger rewards. This effect occurs only when several conditions are met.

Occurs only in situations in which people believe that they have a choice as to whether or not to perform the attitude-discrepant behavior.

Small rewards lead to greater attitude change only when people believe that they were personally responsible for both the chosen course of action and any negative effects it produced.

The effect occurs only when people view the reward they receive as a well-deserved payment for services rendered, not as a bribe.
Social identity
A person's definition of who he or she is, including personal attributes (self-concept) and attributes shared with others, such as gender and race.
Self-concept
One's identity, or self-concept, consists of self-beliefs and self-perceptions organized as a cognitive schema

SELF-CONCEPT - One's self-identity, a schema consisting of an organized collection of beliefs and feelings about oneself.
Three levels of self awareness
1. Subjective self awareness - most animals have this
2. objective self awareness - some primates have this
3. symbolic self awareness - human beings have this
Subjective self awareness
The ability of an organism to differentiate itself, however crudely, from its physical and social environment. Objective self awareness is the next aspect to emerge
Objective self awareness
An organism's capacity to be the object of its own attention, to be aware of its own state of mind, and to know that it knows and remember that it remembers.
Symbolic self-awareness
An organism's ability to form an abstract concept of self through language; this ability enables the organism to communicate, form relationships, set goals, evaluate outcomes, develop self-regulated attitudes, and defend itself against threatening communcations.
Self-reference effect
Because the self is the center of each person's social world and because self-schemas are well developed, we can process informatoin about ourselves more efficiently than other types of information - the self-reference effect. This processing is both elaborative and categorical.

SELF-REFERENCE EFFECT - The fact that cognitive processing of information relevant to the self is more efficient that the processing of other types of information.
Two ways self-relevant information is more efficiently processed
1. Elaborative processing
2. categorical processing
Elaborative processing
You are likely to spend more time thinking about words or events that are relevant to yourself than about any other words or events. This elaborative processing connects new material to existing information that is already stored in memory. It is easier to process anything associated with something you know well than anything associated with something about which you are relatively uninformed.
Categorical processing
relevant information can easily be placed in categories that are already present.
How is the self-concept structured?
Self-conceptions can be relatively central or relatively peripheral. Central self-conceptions are more extreme, positive or negative, than peripheral. In general, it is more difficult to bring about change in central self-perception than in peripheral ones.
Social self
A collective identity that includes interpersonal relationships plus aspects of identity derived from membership in larger, less personal groups based on race, ethnicity, and culture.
Possible selves and their impact
Mental representations of what we might become, or should become, in the future.

One's self-concept at any given time is actually just a working self-concept, something open to change in response to new experiences and feedback.

The existence of alternate possible selves affects in several ways: It may influence motivation. Optimistic individuals are more confident than pessimistic individuals that they will be able to achieve a positive possible self.

Those who can envision only a relatively limited number of alternatives tend to be espeically vulnerable to discouraging feedback. Those who can envision many different selves adjust better to many kinds of setbacks.
Self-esteem
Self-esteem consists of self-evaluation or the attitudes we hold about ourselves in general and in specific domains. It is one's attitude toward oneself along a positive-negative dimension. It is based in part on social comparison processes.

Depending on your comparison group, specific successes and failures may contribute to high or low self-evaluations - or may be completely irrelevant.
Social comparison
Judging ourselves based on comparison to other people. Depending on your comparison group, specific behavior may seem inadequate, average, or good.
Downward social comparison
Comparing yourself to someone who is worse off than you with respect to a particular attribute.
Upward social comparison
Comparing yourself to someone who is better of than you with respect to a particular attribute.
Downward comparison of groups
With strangers - makes you feel good (increase of self esteem)

With peers - makes you feel good

With those close - makes you feel bad (decrease of self-esteem)
Downward comparison by groups
With strangers - usually makes you feel indifferent

With peers - makes you feel bad (reduces self esteem)

With those close - makes you feel good (increases self esteem)
Paradoxical self-esteem
Sometimes competence and self-esteem do not match, and PARADOXICAL SELF-ESTEEM refers to unrealistically high or unrealistically low self-esteem. Unrealistically positive self-esteem can temporarily benefit one's mental health, but accurate self-evaluation is more beneficial in the long run.
Variable self-esteem
There are many positive benefits associated with high as opposed to low self-esteem, but variable self-esttem has even more negative consequences than low self-esteem.

VARIABLE SELF-ESTEEM - When self-evaluation fluctuates up and down in response to changes in the situation. This situation is most likely to cause depression. This is because people whose self-esteem is strongly affected by minor occurrences have a less stable base of self-worth than people whose self-esteem remains relatively constant.
How does mood affect self-focusing?
Mood also affects self-focusing. Feeling sad can lead you to focus on and recall negative things about yourslef and to feel pessimistic about the future.
Compartmentalized self-organization(as part of self-focusing)
The tendency to file positive and negative aspects of an experiences separately in memory.
Evaluatively integrated self-organization (as part of self-focus)
The tendency for some people to store positive and negative self-knowledge together in the same mental files. When this occur, self-focusing can never involve purely negative elements, because positive elements are also present. This approach has its plusses and minuses.
Self monitoring
Self-monitoring refers to a dispositional tendency to regulate behavior on the basis of external factors (high self-monitoring) or on the basis of internal beliefs and values (low self-monitoring).
What are the basic differences between high self monitors and low self monitors?
Low self-monitors are consistent across situations, whereas high self-monitors change in response to situational changes.

A high self-monitor analyzes a social situation by assessing the relationship between his or her public self and what is socially appropriate in the setting, then strives to alter the public self to match the situation. A low self-monitor analyzes a social situation by assessing the relationship between his or her private self and personal standards of behavior, then strives to alter the situation to match the private self.

High self-monitors mold their behavior to fit the audience. They tend to speak in the third person. Low self-monitors tend to speak in the first person.

High self-monitors choose companions on the basis of external qualities, whereas low self-monitors makes choices on the basis of how much the like the other person. In dating, low self-monitors do so for intrinsic reasons, such as having similar interests, while high self-monitors report extrinsic reason, such as the other's having the right connections.

High self monitors have more positive personality characteristics than low. High self-monitors are also high in self-esteem, and their monitoring behavior may simply be a way to maintain good feelings about themselves, to make themselves likable, and to regulate their own emotional state.
Self-efficacy
Refers to an individual's evaluation of his or her ability to perform a task, reach a goal, or overcome an obstacle.
Explain some differences between those with high self-efficacy and those with low self-efficacy
High self-efficacy is associated with better performance (physical and intellectual), more socially skilled behavior, the ability to overcome phobias, and skill in coping with fearful events.

Low social self-efficacy is often based on the lack of social skills, and a common resonse is anxiety and the desire to avoid interpersonal interactions.
Sex
Maleness or femaleness as determined by genetic factors present at conception that result in anatomical and physiological differences.
Gender
The attributes, behaviors, personality characteristics, and expectancies associated with a person's biological sex in a given culture. Gender differences can be based on biology, learning, or a combination of the two.
Gender identity and when it develops
That part of the self-concept involving a person's identification as a male or a female. Consiousness of gender identity usually develops at about the age of two.

Children attain a grasp of gender identity (the awareness of being a boy or a girl) at about the age of two. Between ages four and seven, children become aware that gender is a basic attribute of each person.
Gender consistency
The concept that gender is a basic, enduring attribute of each individual. A grasp of gender consistence usually develops between the ages of four and seven.
Gender schema theory
Proposes that children have a generalized readiness to organize information about the self on the basis of cultural definitions of appropriate male and female attributes.

As childhood progresses, children learn the stereotypes associates with being a male or a female in their culture, and gender-appropriate behavior is strongly encouraged.

As childhood progresses, sex typing occurs when children learn the stereotypes associated with maleness and femaleness in their culture.
Sex typing
Comprehension of the stereotypes associated with being a male or a female in one's culture.

Children are generally rewarded for engaging in gender-appropriate behavior and discouraged (often ridiculed) when their behavior is gender-inappropriate.

After observing parents, peers, advertising, and all other role models, a child gradually acquires the gender stereotypes of his or her culture. By the time chidren reach the sixth grade, they understand the prevailing stereotyps.
Briefly describe Sandra Bem's research
Sandra Bem reflected the idea of a single dimension to gender identity and suggested that various personal characteristics associated with masculinity and femininity lie on two separate dimensions: one ranging from low to high masculinity and the other ranging from low to high femininity. In this conceptualization, many individuals may actually be high on characteristics associated with both genders. A person who combines traditional masculine characteristics with traditional feminine ones is considered to be androgynous.

Bem's conception of masculinity and femininity as two separate dimensions led to her formulation indicating that each individual's gender-role identification can be masculine, feminine, both (androgynous), or neither (undifferentiated).
Gender role identification
The extent to which an individual identifies with the gender stereotypes of his or her culture.
Compare sex, gender, gender identity, and gender-role identification
Sex refers to biological maleness or femaleness.

Gender refers to one's social categorization as a female or male.
Gender identity refers to a person's self-perception as a male or female.

Gender-role identification refers to an individual's self-reported androgyny, femininity, or masculinity
Androgynous
Characterized by possessing both traditional masculine and feminine characteristics.

To identify masculine, feminine, and androgenous individuals, the BEM SEX-ROLE INVENTORY was developed. This develops a score for individuals which indicates an individual as belonging to a particular sex type. The possibilities are feminine female or masculine male, femine male or masculine female, an adrogenous individual of either gender, or an undifferentiated type who has few characteristics of either gender.

About 1/3 of each gender fit their gender type (masculine male). About 1/3 of each gender fits the androgenous category, and the rest fit the undifferentiated or cross-gender categories.
Briefly describe gender-role behavior
Generally, androgyny is preferable to either male or female gender-typed roles. Androgynous people were found to be better liked, better adjusted, better able to adapt to situational demands, more flexible in coping with stress, more comfortable with their sexuality, and more satisfied with their interpersonal relationships.

Traditional masculinity seems to create numerous interpersonal problems. Masculine behavior tends to be more violent and aggressive. Traditional femininity is associated with higher rates of depression.

Much of the research on gender-role identification supports the assumption that androgynous people have many advantages over those who are sex-typed. Also, masculinity tends to be associated with more positive outcomes than femininity. Extreme gender-role identification for either males or females seems to be relatively maladaptive.
Hypermasculinity
An extreme gender-role indentification with an exaggerated version of the traditional male role; includes callous sexual attitudes toward women, the belief that violence is manly, and the enjoyment of danger as a source of excitement.
Hyperfemininity
An extreme gender-role identification with an exaggerated version of the traditional female role; includes the belief that relationships with men are of central importance in one's life, that attractiveness and sexuality should be used to get a man and keep him, and that it is reasonable to sometimes say no but mean yes.
Prejudice
An attitude (usually negative) toward members of some social group based solely on their membership in that group.
Two ways in which prejudice affects attitude
When prejudice is defined as a special type of attitude, two important implications follow. Attitudes often function as schemas - cognitive frameworks for organizing, interpreting,a nd recalling information. Individuals who are prejudiced toward a particular group tend to process information about these groups differently from the way they process information about other groups. Information that is consistent with an individual's prejudiced views often receives closer attention and so is remembered more accurately than information that is not consistent.

Also, if prejudice is an attitude, it may also include negative feelings or emotions on the part of prejudiced persons when they are in the presence of, or merely thinking about, members of the group they dislike.
Two reasons why prejudice persists
Prejudice persists because disparaging groups we dislike can boost our self-esteem, and because stereotypes save us cognitive effort.

Stereotypes, in particular, seem to serve the function of saving us mental effort. Once stereotypes are formed, we don't have to bother engaging in careful, systematic processing. We know what members of a given group are like. We can rely on quicker, heuristic-driven processing and preconceived beliefs.
Discrimination
Discrimination involves negative actions, based on perjudice, toward members of various social groups.
Three components of modern racism
The move from blatant racism has been replaced with what some call MODERN RACISM, which is more subtle and seems to have three major components:

1. Denial that there is continuing discrimination against minorities.
2. Antagonism to the demands of minorities for equal treatment.
3. Resentment about special favors for minority groups.
Tokenism
The performance of trivial or small-scale positive actions for people who are the targets of prejudice. Prejudiced groups often use tokenistic behaviors as an excuse for refusing more meaningful beneficial actions.
Two negative effects of tokenism
1. It lets prejudiced people off the hook; they can point to tokenistic actions as public proof that they aren't really bigoted.

2. It can be damaging to the self-esteem and confidence of the targets of prejudice, including those few persons who are selected as tokens or who receive minimal aid.
Reverse discrimination
The tendency to evaluate or treat persons belonging to groups that are the object of prejudice more favorably than members of the dominant group.

Recent findings indicate that white persons in the United States often lean over backward to provide positive feedback to members of minority groups

Critics of affirmative action programs contend that they are a form of reverse discrimination that actually harms other groups.
Realistic conflict theory
The view that prejudice sometimes stems from direct competition between various social groups over scarce and valued resources
Subordinate goals
When groups find it necessary to work together to achieve subordinate goals - those both groups desire - prejudice among the groups diminishes.

Findings by Hovland and Sears suggest that prejudice and attending acts of aggression can also occur during times of economic crisis. This can be because of displaced aggression.
Social categorization
The tendency to divide the social world into two separate categories: one's in-group and various out-groups. Social categorization takes place on many dimensions, including race, religion, sex, age, occupation, income, and others.

Out-group members are perceived to possess more undesirable traits, are perceived as being more alike than members of the in-group, and are often disliked
Ultimate attribution error (as part of prejudice)
The tendency to make more favorable and flattering attributions about members of one's own group than about members of other groups.

Each group seeks to view itself as not only different from but better than it's rivals, and prejudice arises out of this clash of social perception. This stems from our strong need to enhance our self-esteem

Recent findings indicate that perceived similarity to an out-group can reduce prejudice toward its members unless the group is viewed as a threat.
Social learning view (of prejudice)
The view that prejudice is acquired through direct and vicarious experience in much the same manner as other attitudes.
Social identity theory (as part of prejudice)
A theory suggesting that individuals seek to enhance their own self-esteem by identifying with specific social groups
How is group distinctiveness affected by social identity theory
When distinctiveness of a group is not threatened, there is less bias toward an out-group, even if that out-group is quite dissimilar. But when an in-group is threatened, bias can be high even toward a similar out-group
Stereotypes
Beliefs to the effect that all members of specific social groups share certain traits or characteristics. Stereotypes are cognitive frameworks that strongly influence the processing of incoming social information.

Stereotypes are cognitive frameworks suggesting that all persons belonging to a social group show similar characteristics. Stereotypes strongly influence social group thought. For instance, when activated, they lead us to draw tacit inferences about others that then make information consistent with them.

Information relevant to an activated stereotype is often processed more quickly than information unrelated to it. Stereotypes lead persons holding them to pay attention to specific types of information - usually, information consistent with the stereotypes. When information which is inconsistent enters consciousness, it may be actively refuted or changed in subtle ways to make it seem consistent. We draw TACIT INFERENCES (conclusions and ideas not contained in the information) that change the meaning of this information to make it consistent with the stereotype.

Deep thinkers (those not cognitively lazy) seem to remember more information consistent with their stereotypes than persons who don't enjoy effortful cognitive activity.

Stereotypes can sometimes be activated spontaneously, without conscious effort or intention. After experiencing some threat to self-esteem, stereotypes may be activated spontaneously even if we are cognitively busy because putting others down helps us to bolster our self-esteem.
Stereotype threat
The threat perceived by persons who are the target of stereotypes, that they will be evaluated in terms of these stereotypes.
Illusory correlations
Perceived associations between variables that are stronger than actually exist; occur when each variable is distinctive so that the occurrence of the variables is readily entered into and retrieved from memory.

Two populations (Group A is 1000 and Group B is 100). Each group has a 10 percent crime, but group B will be perceived to have a higher crime rate than group A. This is caused by the illusory correlations effect.

One explanation for this effect is based on the distinctiveness of infrequent events or stimuli. Infrequent events are distinctive - readily noticed. As such, they are encoded more extensively than other items when they are encountered, and so become more accessible in memory.

Apparently it is not crucial that information be distinctive when it is first encountered; rather, information can become distinctive at later times and produce illusory correlations when this occurs. We review and reconsider social information over and over again, in the light of new input
Illusion of out-group homogeneity
The tendency to perceive members of out-groups as more similar to one another (less variable) than the members of one's own in-group.

"You know what they're like; they're all the same."
In-group differentiation
The mirror image of the illusion of out-group homogeneity. This is the tendency to perceive members of one's own group as showing much larger differences from one another (as being more heterogeneous) than those of other groups.
Cross-racial identification
One example of in-group differentiation is cross-racial facial identification - the tendency for persons belonging to one racial group to be more accurate in recognizing the faces of strangers from their own group than those of strangers from another racial group.
Three ways prejudice can be reduced
1. One approach involves changing children's early experiences so that they are not taught bigotry by their parents and other adults. Bigots are made, not born.

2. Once people come face to face with their own prejudices, many do seem willing to modify their words and behavior so as to encourage lower levels of prejudice among their children.

Reduction in prejudice can be at the expense of lowering self-esteem, but overall it is clear that person holding intense racial and ethnic prejudices suffer many harmful effects from these views.

3. Another technique involves direct contact between persons from different groups. When this occurs under certain conditions, prejudice can be reduced.
Contact hypothesis
The view that increased contact between members of various social groups can be effective in reducing prejudice between them; seems to be valid only when contact takes place under certain favorable conditions.

Increased contact between groups can lead to a growing recognition of similarities. While sterotypes are resistant to change, they can be altered when sufficient information inconsistent with them is encountered, or when individuals meet a sufficient number of exceptions to their stereotypes. Increased contact may help counter the illusion of out-group homogeneity.

Conditions which much exist are: the groups must be roughly equal in social status; the contact must involve cooperation and interdependence; the contact must permit them to get to know one another as individuals; norms favoring group must exist; and the persons involved must view one another as typical of their respective groups.

Such conditions are rare, and when there is strong prejudice between groups negative emotions such as anxiety and fear can surface which can work against the potential benefit of contact. Social psychologists voice pessimism about the efficacy of intergroup contact as a means of reducing prejudice.
Extended Contact hypothesis
A view suggesting that simply knowing that members of one's own group have formed close friendships with members of an out-group can reduce prejudice against this group.

It appears that contact between person belonging to different groups can be a highly effective means for reducing prejudice between them, especially if these contact develop into friendships. Moreover, the beneficial effects of such friendships can readily spread to other persons who have not themselves experienced such contacts: simply knowing about them can be enough
Recategorization (as part of prejudice)
Prejudice can sometimes be reduced through recategorization - shifting the boundary between us and them so as to include former out-groups in the us category.
Common in-group identity model
A theory suggesting that to the extent that individuals in different groups view themselves as members of a single social entity, positive contacts between them will increase and intergroup bias will be reduced.

One crucial factor in inducing this model the experience of working together cooperatively. When people belonging to intially distinct groups work together toward shared goals, they come to perceive themselves as a single social entity.
Two cognitive intervention to combat category-driven processing
The tendency known as CATEGORY-DRIVEN PROCESSING appears to be a key factor in the occurrence and persistence of prejudice. Cognitive interventions would include:

1. If individuals are encouraged to think carefully about others - to pay attention to their unique characteristics rather than to their membership in various groups.

2. We can also just say no to assocations between stereotypes and specific social groups.
Sexism
Prejudice based on gender. Prejudice based on gender affects more individuals than any other single kind and produces negative outcomes for males as well as females.
Gender stereotypes
Stereotypes concerning the traits supposedly possessed by females and males, which distinguish the two genders from each other.

There are indeed some differences between males and females with respect to various aspects of behavior, but in general the magnitude of such differences is much smaller than prevailing gender stereotypes suggest.
Hostile sexism
The view that women, if not inferior to men, have many negative traits (they seek special favors, are overly sensitive, or seek to seize power from men that they don't deserve to have)
Benevolent sexism
Views suggesting that women deserve protection, are superior to men in various ways (they are more pure, have better taste), and are truly necessary for men's happiness (no man is truly fulfilled unless he has a woman he adores in his life).
Glass ceiling
Barriers based on attitudinal or organizational bias that prevent qualified females from advancing to top-level positions.

The glass ceiling does not seem to exist because of conscious efforts on the part of male executives to keep women out of their domain. More subtle factors seem to produce this effect.
For instance, females report fewer opportunities to develop their skills and competency than males.
Sexual harassment
Unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, and other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature.

More than 30 percent of women report they have been the object of sexual harassment on at least one occasion, as opposed to 7 percent of males.
Sex-role spillover theory
A theory suggesting that females working in nontraditional jobs will be seen as role deviates and so are more appropriate targets for sexual harassment.