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58 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
social psychology
the scientific study of how people think about, influence, and relate to one another
the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next
socially shared beliefs-widely held ideas and values, including our assumptions and cultural ideologies. helps us make sense of our world
social representations
the tendency to ezaggerate after learning an outcome; one's ability to have foreseen how something turned out; also known as the "I knew it all along phenomenom"
hindsight bias
the study of the naturally occurring relationships among variables
correlational research
the way a question or an issue is posed
the experimental factor that a researcher manipulates
independent variable
the variable being measured, so called because it may depend on manipulations of the independent variable
dependent variable
cues in an experiment that tell the participant what behavior is expected
demand characteristics
the belief that others are paying more attention to one's appearance and behavior than they really are
spotlight effect
illusion that our concealed emotions leak out and can be easily read by others
illusion of transparency
a person's answers to the question, "Who am I?"
beliefs about self that organize and guide the processing of self-relevant information
images of what we dream of or dread becoming in the future
possible selves
evaluating one's abilities and opinions by comparing oneself with others
social comparison
construing one's identity in relation to others
interdependent self
the tendency to underestimate how long it will take to complete a task
planning fallacy
overestimating the enduring impact of emotion-causing events
impact bias
the human tendency to underestimate the speed and the strength of the "psychological immune system," which enables emotional recovery and resilience after bad things happen
immune neglect
differing implicit (automatic) and explicit (consciouscly controlled) attitudes toward the same object
dual attitudes
may change with education or persuasion
verbalized explicit attitudes
attitudes that change slowly, with practice that forms new habits
implicit attitudes
a person's overall self-evaluation or sense of self-worth
a sense that one is competent and effective, distinguished from self-esteem, which is one's sense of self-worth.
the extent to which people perceive outcomes as internally controllable by their own efforts or as externally controlled by chance or outside forces
locus of control
the sense of hopelessness and resignation learned when a human or animal perceives no control over repeated bad events
learned helplessness
the tendency to perceive oneself favorably
self-serving bias
a form of self-serving bias; the tendency to attribute positive outcomes to oneself and negative outcomes to other factors
self-serving attributions
the adaptive value of anticipating problems and harnessing one's anxiety to motivate effective action
defensive pessimism
the tendency to overestimate the commonality of one's opinions and one's undesirable or unsuccessful behaviors
false consensus effect
the tendency to underestimate the commonality of one's abilities and one's desirable or successful behaviors
false uniqueness effect
explaining away outgroup member's positive behaviors; also attributing negative behaviors to their dispositions (while excusing such behavior by one's own group)
group-serving bias
protecting one's self-image with behaviors that create a handy excuse for later failure
the act of expressing oneself and behaving in ways designed to create a favorable impression or an impression that corresponds to one's ideals
being attuned to the way one presents oneself in social situations and adjusting one's performance to create the desired impression
activating particular associations in memory
persistence of one's initial conceptions, as when the basis for one's belief is descredited but an explanation of why the belief might be true survives
belief perseverance
incorporating "misinformation" into one's memory of the event, after witnessing an event and receiving misleading information about it
misinformation effect
"explicit" thinking that is deliberate, reflective, and conscious
controlled processing
"implicit" thinking that is effortless, habitual, and without awareness, roughly corresponds to "intuition"
automatic processing
the tendency to be more confident than correct--to overestimate the accuracy of one's beliefs
overconfidence phenomenon
a tendency to search for information that confirms one's preconceptions
confirmation bias
a thinking strategy that enables quick, efficient judgements
the tendency to presume, sometimes despite contrary odds, that someone or something belongs to a particular group if resembling (representing) a typical member
represenativeness heuristic
a cognitive rule that judges the likelihood of things in terms of their availability in memory. If instances of something come readily to mind, we presume it to be commonplace
availability heuristic
imagining alternative scenarios and outcomes that might have happened, but didn't
counterfactual thinking
perception of a relationship where none exists, or perception of a stronger relationship than actually exists
illusory correlation
perception of uncontrollable events as subject to one's control or as more controllable than they are
illusion of control
the statistical tendency for extreme scores or extreme behavior to return toward one's average
regression toward the average
mistakenly attributing a behavior to the wrong source
the theory of how people explain other's behavior--for example, by attributing it either to internal dispositions (enduring traits, motives, and attitudes) or to external situations
attribution theory
attributing behavior to the person's disposition and traits
dispositional attribution
attributing behavior to the environment
situational attribution
an effortless, automatic inference of a trait after exposure to someon'es behavior
spontaneous trait inference
the tendency for observers to underestimate situational influences and overestimate dispositional influences upon others' behavior. (also called correspondence bias)
fundamental attribution error
a self-conscious state in which attention focuses on oneself. It makes people more sensitive to their own attitudes and dispositions
a belief that leads to its own fulfillment
self-fulfilling prophecy
a type of self-fulfilling prophecy whereby people's social expectations lead them to behave in ways that cause others to confirm their expectations
behavioral confirmation