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111 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Law 1
Situation matters; all aspects of the situation
Social rules for the bx that we are to follow; society; groups; cultures define this
Rules written down: laws/ standard operating procedures
Explicit Norms
Speed Limits, cell phones in this class are examples of...
Explicit Norms
Rules that are not written down but are still expected to be followed
Implicit Norms
Guys giving up seat for elderly women, sitting arrangements for class without a seating chart are examples of...
Implicit Norms
Law 2
The brain likes it easy
We are cognitive ______because we want to conserve our cognitive energy by spending the least amount of effort thinking about other people.
Implicit rules vs. Explicit rules: Which ones are easier?
Implicit because we don't have to learn them
Norm for raising hand in high school and not college or wearing clothes at a nakes beach are all examples of....
Norms for one situation isn't the same for another situation
Social positions governed by norms; these can clash; i.e. mother, coach, wife, friend...
____ did a prison study that showed there was a powerful effects on the norms of people and the roles they had
Aspect of Situation
____ is an example of social seting; changes how you feel and act; a lot of research behind this
Other people
Aspect of Situation
____ is an example of how you can change how poeple are thinking
Cognitive process
Aspect of Situation
____ is like of heat and noise
Environmental Variables
Aspect of Situation
____ is like nude beaches
Cultural Context
Aspect of Situation
____ is an example of evolutionary; what we do has a purpose; like being afriad of things that hurt keeps us alive
Biological factors
Statement of relationship or series of events; is not necessarily a cause
Constructs that vary in magnititue or type
"cause"; manipulated; experimenter has chosen the amount; must be randomized
Something that a person brings with them; can't be assigned like gender, personality, race, age...
SSG or subject selection or grouping
If it is not an I.V. can't say _______
that there is a causal relationship
Measureded; "effect"; outcomes
All variables that aren't I.V., D.V., or SSG; key is control these
External variable
This has an increased control over the variables; problem is that is it contrived so not authentic
Advantage over realism; studying where whatever occurs; disadv is that there is a lack of control
Statistic; Nonexperimental; there is only a trend, no guarentees
Correlational: Type/direction
1. _____ scores move together
2. _____ scores move in opposite direction
3. ____ are not related
1. Positive
2. Negative
3. No correlation
Correlational: Strength/Magnititude
* closer it is to any endpoint = _______
Stronger correlation so:
-.81, +.62 and -.35, -.81 is the strongers; -1.00 to 1.00
The size of the coefficent allows you to ________
Compare the relationship
Correlational: Causation; you CANNOT infer causation from correlation
A--->B effort causes performance
B--->A Preformance causes effort
C--->A & B MOtivation causes preformance and effort
Method of choice; can determine causation; biggest advantage; have true I.V.
Experimental method
Has to do with picking population and sample
Random Selection
_____ are individuals who are to be represented by data; want to be able to generalize to these poeple; like MLB team
Those individuals who you actually test; like few MLB players
When sample gets placed in study by chance
Random assignment; the groups must be equal as possible
Group with no IV
Control group
Group that gets the I.V.
Experimental group
Group that gets the subsitute for the I.V.; group that does the action without the actual I.V.; i.e. snorting a line of chalk and not cocain... was it the snoring or the cocain.. now we can tell
ways of defining contructs or variables in research
Operational Defination
Reason we operationally define the D.V.
b/c we need to be able to know what it is being measured and how we are measuring it
Reason we operationally define the I.V.
Not everyone sees this as the same think like "cold", "hot" young/ old
Sometimes we need to define this operationally, but with things like gender, we don't
Subject variables
This does not need to be operationally defined
Labs lack what happens in the real world
what happens in labs happen in the real world; we don't care about this is social phych.
Mundane Realism
Extent to which the study was involving and interesting to the subject; where they really impacted?; this is very important to social phych; does is all matter?
Experimental realism
Problem with research:
Experimenter sets up experiment so that subjects already know whats being studied; like in the title or were told
Demand characteritic/ Hawthorne effect
Problems with research: unconscience bias that the researcher infers; ambiguous; info is made to be consistant with the reserach
Experimental Bias
Problem with research: Subject/ researcher is blind to experiment; can either higher a reseracher assistant or can do the experiement where they don't know the hypothesis
Double-blind technique
Manner in which we interpret, analyze, remember and use information about our social workld
Social cognition
Mental representations centered around specific themes; use this to organize our thinking; like a mental picuture/ idea we have about something
Schemas play a huge role in influencing social thought by: ____ or seeking out info that matches what we already think b/c brain likes it easy; look to _____ to thinkgs that match schema
Attention / attend
Schemas play a huge role in influencing social thought by: _____ or storing info that we attend to; so we do this to what already matches our schema
Schemas play a huge role in influencing social thought by: _____ b/c people do this with schema consistant info; very resistance to chance the schemia thus _____
Hard to change 1st impression is an example of _______
Perserverance Effect
Perserverence Effect and ______ which states that expect things to happen b/c of schema and then we do those things b/c of schema
Self-fulfilling prophecy
Law 3
Limited cognitive capacity- can't multitask very well, however asked to do this in real world
Things that guide thinking with out a lot of cognitive effort; like birds of a feather flock together
The more similar individual is to group the more likely to believe that they are a member of that group; like sterotyping
Representativeness Heuristic
The more info. that is readilly available like your 1st kiss vs. 10th kiss
Availability Heuristic
When you have done schema so many times, you don't even think about it
Automatic process
Can cue thinking; i.e. scary movie = hard to get in car
Primary effect
Will show greater _____ to negative cognition than positive cognition
Want things to be better than they are
Optimistic bias
Thinking you can do more than you can really do; when you make list
Planning Falicy
Evaluation of some aspect of your world
Positive Evaluation
Positive attitude
Negative Evaluation
Neg attitude
Do not really care one way or another; + and - parts are balanced; "I don't know" or 1/2 and 1/2
Ambivalant Attitude
Attitudes don't have to have all three componts A,B,C because...
Affective, Bx and Cognition; if you feel ambivalant, about something
LaPiare- 1934; Do attitudes predict bx?
His study concluded that yes it does
Kraus; 1995; meta-analysis or combonation of data study; Does attitude predict bx
"Yes, but not nearly as well as one may assume."
When measuring real attitudes by questioneers, the purpose is to...
Make the link stonger b/w attitude and bx
When people lied on questioneers
Bogus Pipeline
Make the link stonger by:
Can't measure attitude about something differnt than what you say its going to be about; i.e. say doing a study on attitude about TV sports and really do a study about Superbowl
Attitude Specificity
Make the link stonger by: sometimes you can't do the bx b/c of other influences; would you if you could?
Minimizing other influences
Make the link stonger by: Requrie an attitude b/c of somethign that has happened to you
Direct experience
Make the link stonger by: does it matter to you? If it does, attitude will result in a bx responce
Vested Interest
Make the link stonger by: Consciencly aware of attitude will increase bx
Bring the attitude to mind
Make the link stonger by: Bringing the attitude to mind by
1. "think about it"
2. Indirectly through...
1. Can remind people of attitude
2. Self-awareness; increased self awareness is increasing the level of attitude
Festinger: Does Bx perdict attitude
Cognitive Dissonance
We want ______ so that attitude and bx match up
Cognitive Consistance
Inconsistancy of Cognitive feeling b/w attiude and bx
Cognitive Dissonance
Cognitive Dissonance ----> _____ -----> ______
Attitude and bx not matching us ----> Negative tention or unwanted arousal -----> chancing either bx or attitude, but usually attitude
Attitude is usually chanced to equalize cognitive dissonce b/c
1. It is usually ____ to change attitude
2. Sometimes you can't change the _____
Experiement that asked "what do you feel about the tasks you just completed" then gave nothing, $1 and $20 to group.
Insufficient Justification ($1) therefore cognitive dissonance
Sufficient Justification ($20) which means no cognitive dissonance
Study where girls where asked to join a group and do nothing, some sexual terms and many sexual terms
Effort Justification
G2 (some sexual terms) said that they liked the project some
G3 (a lot of sexual terms) siad that they loved the project
WHen given the choice b/w two things, and feel that they are equal, you feel the strongest about the one you choose; i.e. choosing the iron over the toaster = iron is better, even if you rated them about the same before choosing them
Post-Decision Dissonance
Other methods of reducing dissonance:
"I don't care"
Can trivilize the incosistance
Other methods of reducing dissonance: Done to justify the inconsistancy
Gather information
Other methods of reducing dissonance: Limited cognitive capacity; why you do things when you are drunk that you wouldn't do sober
Take mind off arousal
In choice vs. nonchoice group for counterattitual essay done in '74 by Cooper and Zanna; the _____ group had dissonance
Choice group
Out of the 3 choice groups for Cooper and Zanna study, group told ______ had the most amt of dissonance
that pill will make you relaxed b/c they felt as though they had to change the most in order to make cognitive consistancy
Was arousal that is induced from dissonance actually unwanted? Work done by______
Elliot and Devine '94; Yes it is unwanted; realized this b/c group 1 was told to write essay, rate feelings and report attitude ( most neg attitude b/c they were still experiencing dissonance), but group two had already reported neg attitude
Effort full of attempts to change people's attitude
Influence of Persuader: If we think that they are _____
Influence of Persuader: One who doesn't argue for position that is against person gain
Influence of Persuader: The people who are giving it
Attractive Source : can be good or bad (product could suck)
Influence of Persuader: Individuals with whom we are connected in some way
Influence of noncrediable source gain in strength b/c we forget who said it over time
Sleeper Effect
What it said: The message; the gap/differnece b/w what individual thinks and what the message is saying; worst vs. best
What it said: The message can be:
One sided _______
Two sided ________
One sided: just want them to hear what you have to say; good points only
Two sided: tell them the good and the bad
Discrepancy depends on_______
the credibility of the source; i.e. Dr. Wann talking about Sport Psy and the guy at McDonalds talking about Sport Psy.
What it said: The message;
_____ or memory for thing we just heard
_____ Last info that we hear
Primacy effect
Recency effect
If you warn the target or population about the persuasion methods, will decreased its effects b/c cognitive capacity is limited
Counteragruments: like taking kids to car event will distract your thinking
One sided agruments are good when _______ but two sided arguments are good when _______
the person is close to the decision anyway; if a person is not close to decision at all, will help gain trustworthiness b/c you are not telling them the all good
Primacy effect is good when ______, but recency effect is good when _______
There is very little time b/w the first and last thing said; there is a lot of time b/w the first and last thing said
Desire to maintain our freedom of choice
WHen you want to have an apple pie, but they don't have one, then clearly cherry pie was a better choice
First reactance (freedome was taken away) then dessonance
Resisting Persuasion; Reactance was done by
Brehm in '66