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62 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
primary deviance
related to unique social, cultural, or psychological situations.(underage drinking)
power elite model
(exemplified by the work of C. Wright Mills and G. William Domhoff). real political power is held by a small group made up mostly of those who own corporate weatlth.
internal colonialism
within the borders of the country, the colonized groups are placed under the control involuntarily.
class systems
Highest degree of mobility.
People who are born into affluent families enjoy a higher status as adults
street crime
(two categories: violent and property)
open stratification system
achieved statuses have substancial influence over the the social status a person attains in adulthood.
gender role socialization
different and unequal gender roles are transmitted
Feudal systems (estate systems)
Slightly more mobility than caste system. Status determined by land ownership. Usually ascribed, sometimes mobility.
deterrence
formal negative sanctions deter deviant behavior comes from the classical criminology school of thought
stratification
different ranking systems, based on different scare resouces.
iron law of oligarchy
tendency to be run by the leadership rather than ordinary members
(characteristic of all formal organizations)
closed stratification system
poor stay poor, wealthy stay wealty. ascribed statuses largely determine a person's social position in life.
retreatism
reject and withdrawel from both the goals and the means of society (drug addicts)
traditional authority
long-standing authority, institutional, and unquestioned practices. (ie-King, Catholic Church)
institutional sexism
pracices and patterns within social institutions that lead to inequality bw/ men and women
subjective class
people define their own social class. most people in the U.S consider themselves in the middle class.
ritualism
people give up the chance for success but continue to follow the rules
deindustrialization
a cause of declining wages and unemployment. a decline in the importance of heavy industry. b/c of international competition
intrumental leader
(task leader)
helps define job and dtermines how best to do it
veto groups
not strong enough to get their way on everything, but they can block political action that would threaten their interests.
anomie
(Emile Durkheim)
a condition in society of normlessness-a lack of effective norms governing people's behavior
legal-rational authority
attached to a position, is done so for the purpose of carrying out some assigned task, and it is usually limited in both time and scope. (politician, professor)
expressive leader(socioemotional leader)
helps maintain the cohersiveness of the group and looks out for the emotional well-being of its members
upper-middle class
15-20% U.S. population (doctors, pilots, corporate management). make over 50,000 a year
innovation
people remain committed to economic success but reject legitimate methods
authority
legitimate power attached to a position
secondary deviance
evolves out of an offender's self-concept. people engage in secondary deviance b/c they have come to see themselves as deviant as a result of labeling by others.
poverty
very low income and standard of living. 17,960 a year for a family of four.
rebellion
people turn away from accepted goals and seek to substitute a different set of goals and means (w/ illegal acts)
pluralist model
(Max Weber) wealth influences power but does not determine power. the wealthy can't monopolize power b/c power is divided among many competing groups.
informal structure
things people actually do on a day-to-day basis, in contrast to what the official rules say they are supposed to do.
legitimate power
(biggest catagory) people agree that the person excercising power has the right to do so. REASONS: (smaller catagories) traditional authority, legal-rational authority, charismatic authority.
negotiated order
people, with their needs, objectives, and experiences of others in the organization
socioeconomic status
similar to social class. include levels of income and wealth and prestige of your occupation and the amt. of education attained.
globalization
(of the economy)-a transition to a worldwide economy that transcends national boundaries-has occurred at an increasing rate
intergenerational mobility
compare of a person's status with that of his parents. people usually have statuses like their parents
alienation
Marx-separating the worker from the product of his labor.
Weber-"iron cage" of bureaucracy is necessary yet inevitable trapping workers in a depersonalized situation
charismatic authority
attached to a person-and their qualities. excite and inspire people. (ie-Rev. Jesse Jackson, Louis Farrakhan)
deviance
any behavior disapproved by a large or influential portion of society
idealogical racism
(racist idealogy)
ie-Hitler's idea of the "master race"
One race or ethnic group is naturally superior (or inferior) to another.
sanctions
rewards for conforming behavior and punishments for nonconforming behavior
informal-gestures, frows, avoidance
formal-priests, police, judges
ideal type
(best definition of bureaucracy , found by Max Wever's ideal-type)
an abstract description that actual entities will fit to a greater or lesser extent
assimilation
differences b/w groups are reduced so that the different groups share a common set of values and a common social structure.
rationalization
a shift toward making all decisions purely on the basis of what will acomplish organizational goals.
split labor market threory
Lists three economic interest groups: employers, higher-paid labor, and lower-paid labor. Majority-group workers demand and benefit from discrimination b/c it protects their favored position in the labor force. Employers are hurt by discrimination.
amalgamation
repeated intermarriage and interbreeding b/w racial groups to the point that the various groups became largely indistinguishable.
secondary group
large group and formal organizations, less personal. ie-businesses, schools, political organizations. contacts occur for purpose of conducting business, gaining an education, or influencing politics
pluralism (multiculturalism)
social and cultural characteristics are shared in common throughout a society but differences among groups also exist and are accepted.
feminist theory
linked to conflict perspective. emphasis on understanding the causes and consequences of gender inequality.
ethnic group
are recognized as a distict staus group entirely on the basis of social or cultural criteria such as nationality or religion. there is no reliable way to identify a person's ethnic group by his or her physical appearance
primary group
people value one another. small b/c intimate relationships can't develop throughout a large network of people
racial group
a category of people who 1.share some socially recognized physical characteristic (such as skin color or facial features) and 2.are recognized by themselves and others as a distinct staus group.
formal organization
a relatively large-scale group having a name, some official purpose or goals, and a structure of statuses and roles and a set of rules designed to promote these goals.
racial steering
ie-a real estate agent showing a white family a white neighborhood and a black family a black or racially-mixed neighborhood
gender role socialization
different and, in many cultures, unequal, gender roles are transmitted
social learning
people are prejudice b/c they grow in in that environment
personality need theory
(work of Theodor Adorno)
Right-wing extremists shares which reflect a personality type: developed a personality measure to rate nine distinct attitudes and beliefs, including excessive respect for authority, superstition, aggression against non-conformists, cynicism, worry about sexual "goings-on", opposition to looking inward to understand oneself, and a belief that the world is a dangerous place.
Marxist theory of racism
racism exists b/c it benefits the ruling economic class. 2 groups exist: owners of capital in control divide working class by race so that the minority workers are seen as the enemy rather than the employer. workers will not have to face united workforce.
institutionalized racism (discrimination)
widespread practices and arrangements within social institutions have the intent or effect of favoring one race over another.
symbolic racism
peple do not express overtly prejudiced ideas, but oppose any social policy that would eliminate or reduce social inequality, such as affirmative action, gvt. spending to assist minorities...etc.
cognitive-dissonance theory
if behavior changes, attitudes will often change to become consistent w/ new behavior
authoritarian personality
(Developed by Adorno)person has a "personality need" type...appears to be associated with prejudice