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70 Cards in this Set

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What power indicators does domhoff use?
-Who benefits?
-Who governs?
-Who wins?
p 13
Who benefits?
-wealth distributions
-income distributions
p 13
Who governs?
-representation (over or under) of a group or class in relation to its proportion of the population in positions of authority
p 13
Who wins?
Who successfully initiates, modifies, or vetoes policy alternatives when dealing with two rival coalitions (e.g. corporate-conservative v liberal-labor)

-Indicator most preferred by most social scientists!
p 13
Who are the "hired guns of the corporate community"?
Corporate lawyers
p 39
What is a "local growth coalition"?
Small businesses that organize whose members share a common interest in intensifying land use in their geographical locale.

Includes developers, contractors, local bank executives, the telephone company, the gas and electric company, local department stores, and the newspaper (the "growth statesman")
p 43
What do local growth coalitions want?
They are trying to maximize rents from land and buildings; try to intensify land use to attract corporate investments to the area
p 43
What does Domhoff see as the contribution of the elite social clubs (such as the Bohemian Club) to the maintenance of the social and corporate elite?
Clubs seem to have the same function within the upper class that the brotherhood has in tribal societies.

With their restrictive membership policies, initatory rituals, and great emphasis on tradition, clubs carry on the heritage of primitive secret societies.

They create an attitude of prideful exclusiveness within their members that contributes greatly to an in-group feeling and a sense of fraternity within the upper class.
p 59

Fraternal feelings
What does Domhoff think of the idea that they are places of conspiracy?
Domhoff does not think they are places of conspiracy, but places where people of power relax, make new acquaintances, and enjoy themselves;

they are primarily places of social bonding and the passing on of general values
p 59
In terms of their wealth, successful (upwardly mobile) managers do what as they advance in the corporate hierarchy?
Rising executives receive stock-option plans that allow them to assimilate economically
In terms of their social contacts, successful (upwardly mobile) managers do what as they advance in the corporate hierarchy?
Executives who are successful in winning acceptance are invited by their superiors to join social institutions that assimilate them into the upper class
In terms of their values, successful (upwardly mobile) managers do what as they advance in the corporate hierarchy?
New managers demonstrate loyalty to the senior management by working extra hours, tailoring their appearance to that of their superiors, and attempting to conform in their attitudes and behaviors.

Their values shift, putting an emphasis on profits
In terms of their aspirations for their children, successful (upwardly mobile) managers do what as they advance in the corporate hierarchy?
Children of upwardly mobile executives go to day schools and boarding schools where their parents mingle with other upper-class parents.

The children become involved in upper-class institutions post-secondary.
What are the characteristics of a "capitalist mentality" according to Domhoff?
Members of the upper class are not concerned simply with the interests of one corporation or business sector, but with such matters as the investment climate and the rate of profit
p 75)
In Domhoff's discussion of Class Awareness (a Capitalist Mentality), he discusses the consequences of involvement in these upper class social institutions. What is usually instilled?
Involvement in upper-class institutions usually instills a class awareness that includes feelings of superiority, pride, and justified privilege.
What power indicators does domhoff use?
-Who benefits?
-Who governs?
-Who wins?
p 13
Who benefits?
-wealth distributions
-income distributions
p 13
Who governs?
-representation (over or under) of a group or class in relation to its proportion of the population in positions of authority
p 13
Who wins?
Who successfully initiations, modifies, or vetoes policy alternatievs when dealing with two rival coalitions (e.g. corporate-conservative v liberal-labor)

-Indicator most preferred by most social scientists!
p 13
Who are the "hired guns of the corporate community"?
Corporate lawyers
p 39
What is a "local growth coalition"?
Small business that organize whose members share a common interest in intensifying land use in their geographical locale.

Includes developers, contractors, local bank executives, the telephone company, the gas and electric company, local department stores, and the newspaper (the "growth statesman")
p 43
What do local growth coalitions want?
They are trying to maximize rents from land and buildings; try to intensify land use to attract corporate investments to the area
p 43
What does Domhoff see as the contribution of the elite social clubs (such as the Bohemian Club) to the maintenance of the social and corporate elite?
Clubs seem to have the same function within the upper class that the brotherhood has in tribal societies.

With their restrictive membership policies, initatory rituals, and great emphasis on tradition, clubs carry on the heritage of primitive secret societies.

They create an attitude of prideful exclusiveness within their members that contributes greatly to an in-group feeling and a sense of fraternity within the upper class.
p 59

Fraternal feelings
What does Domhoff think of the idea that they are places of conspiracy?
Domhoff does not think they are places of conspiracy, but places where people of power relax, make new acquaintances, and enjoy themselves;

they are primarily places of social bonding and the passing on of general values
p 59
In terms of their wealth, successful (upwardly mobile) managers do what as they advance in the coporate hierarchy?
Rising executives receive stock-option plans that allow them to assimilate economically
In terms of their social contacts, successful (upwardly mobile) managers do what as they advance in the corporate hierarchy?
Executives who are successful in winning acceptance are invited by their superiors to join social institutions that assimilate them into the upper class
In terms of their values, successful (upwardly mobile) managers do what as they advance in the corporate hierarchy?
New managers demonstrate loyalty to the senior management by working extra hours, tailoring their appearance to that of their superiors, and attempting to conform in their attitudes and behaviors.

Their values shift, putting an emphasis on profits
In terms of their aspirations for their children, successful (upwardly mobile) managers do what as they advance in the corporate hierarchy?
Children of upwardly mobile executives go to day schools and boarding schools where their parents mingle with other upper-class parents.

The children become involved in upper-class institutions post-secondary.
What are the characteristics of a "capitalist mentality" according to Domhoff?
Members of the upper class are not concerned simply with the interests of one corporation or business sector, but with such matters as the investment climate and the rate of profit
p 75)
In Domhoff's discussion of Class Awareness (a Capitalist Mentality), he discusses the consequences of involvement in these upper class social institutions. What is usually instilled?
Involvement in upper-class institutions usually instills a class awareness that includes feelings of superiority, pride, and justified privilege.
Upon what is that awareness based and how is it reinforced?
This awareness is based in corporate ownership, but it is reinforced by the shared social identities and interpersonal ties created through participation in the social institutions of the upper class.
What is their concern with the investment climate, the rate of profit, and the overall political climate?
Since the upper class is based in the ownership and control of profit-producing investments in stocks, bonds, and real estate, they are concerned with the overall performance of the business, not just one corporation or business sector.

Members of the upper class typically also have a conservative outlook on issues that relate to the well-being of the corporate community as a whole.
What three components make up the policy-planning network?
1. Foundations
2. Think tanks
3. Policy-discussion groups
p 79

FTP
What function do the "think tanks" fill in the policy-formation process?
The deepest and most critical thinking within the policy-planning network takes place in various think tanks
87
How do think tanks relate to proposed "new initiatives"?
New initiatives that survive criticism by other experts are brought to the discussion groups for modification and assimilation by the corporate leaders
87
What are 3 highly visible think tanks?
Three highly visible in Washington, D.c. are:

1. Brookings Institution
-oldest and most respected
-mainstream or right-wing

2. American Enterprise Institute
-Conservative

3. Heritage Foundation
-most recent and most famous
-hires young ultraconservatives who are willing to attack all government programs and impugn the motives of all government officials
-leads to staff positions in Republican administrations
87
What overlapping networks comprise the power elite?
1. Social upper class
2. Corporate community
3. Policy-formation organizations
SucCPol

103
What is the power elite?
The power elite is composed of members of the upper class who have taken on leadership roles in the corporate community and the policy network, along with high-level employees in corporations and policy-network organizations
(people who serve as directors or trustees in profit and nonprofit institutions controlled by the corporate community through stock ownership, financial support, or involvement on the board of directors)
103
Domhoff states that he does not claim that there is a completely unified policy elite outlook, but that a different state of affairs exists. What?
The upper class and corporate community have created a complex and only partially coordinated set of institutions and organizations.

They often disagree among themselves about what policies are most compatible with the primary objectives of the corporate community.

Still, have considerable similarity from moderately conservative to highly conservative.

Have worked together to marginalize the few liberal experts.
106
What institutions and organizations make up the opinion-shaping network controlled by the power elite?
-Foundations, policy-planning groups, think tanks
-LARGE PUBLIC RELATIONS FIRMS
-PUBLIC AFFAIRS DEPARTMENTS OF MAJOR CORPORATIONS
-Local advertising agencies
-Corporate-financed advertising councils
-Special committees to influence single issues
-Mass media
111
The underlying principles of the American belief system (laissez-faire liberalism) emphasize what?
-Individualism
-Free enterprise
-Competition
-Equality of opportunity
-Minimum of reliance upon government in carrying out the affairs of society

Leaders within the opinion-molding process attempt to build upon and reinforce these principles, in order to prevent the development of attitudes and opinions that would get in the way of their policies
113
What is a "wedge" issue?
Wedge issues are issues thought to be useful to conservatives because voters who agree with the liberal-labor coalition on economic issues often disagree with it on one or more social issues
123
What are some of the "wedge" issues used to push voters away fromthe liberal-labor coalition?
Abortion, same-sex marriage, the death penalty, gun control, school prayer, pornography
To what does Domhoff attribute the two party system in the US?
1. The selection of senators and representatives from states and districts in elections require only a PLURALITY, not a majority

2. The election of a PRESIDENT
-only one person can win, so a vote for a third party candidate is a vote for "your worst enemy"
PP
Why don't political parties in two-party electoral systems articulate clear images and policies?
Because rival candidates attempt to blur their differences in order to win the voters in the middle;

Candidates emphasize personal qualities rather than policy preferences
What elements does Domhoff see making up the US Democratic Party?
The Democratic party is a coalition of out groups
(e.g. African Americans, Hispanics, Jews, and women who work)
-Still some moderate and liberal business owners
140
What is a "machine" Democrat?
A democrat belonging to an urban Democratic organization (machine)

-Immigrants who became wealthy were major backers of machines
How does the liberal-labor coalition fit into the Democratic Party?
It developed in the Democratic party in the 1930s (elected 100 Democrats to the House starting in the 30s)

Currently it cannot form a third party without assuring the election of even more Republicans, but it unable to win control of the Democratic Party.
142
What coalition has checked the liberal Democrats in their attempt to pass legislation concerning union rights, civil rights, and the regulation of business?
The Southern Democrats and the Northern Republicans formed a conservative voting bloc (corporate-conservative)
SD & NR
What kind of candidates do PACs (Political Action Committees) seem to support?
1. Usually Republican
2. Corporate and conservative PACs usually support one set of candidates, liberal and labor PACs a different set, and corporate PACs almost never oppose each other
150
Why do corporate Political Action Committees sometimes support a Democrat?
-Because the Democrat is a moderate or conservative from the South or a rural area

-To maintain access to a Democrat who sits on a congressional committee important to the corporation

-As a favor to another corporation that wants to maintain access to the Democrat
152
Studies of the candidate-selection process have shown what as to the kind of candidates that emerge?
-Politicians are from the top 10-15% of occupational and income ladders

-Only a minority are from the upper class or corporate community, BUT a majority share common business or legal background with members of the upper class

-Many of them are lawyers (others are business execs, bankers, and realtors)

-Politicians are ambitious people who "go along to get along"

-Most are either conservative or silent on the highly emotional social issues

-Majority are pro-business conservatives
To what does Domhoff attribute the success of labor unions and liberal advocacy groups in blocking ultraconservative initiatives?
-Politicians may vote with the liberals and labor under some conditions
-The support of centrists, moderate Republicans, and conservative law professors
159
Numerous studies of major governmental appointees are unanimous in their conclusion that most top appointees in which major political party are corporate executives or corporate lawyers?
Most top appointees in both Republican and Democratic administrations are corporate executives and corporate lawyers
165
What Act of Congress in 1935 created the most popular program ever developed by the Federal government?
The Social Security Act of 1935
What Act of Congress in 1935 does Domhoff consider the "great exception to the domination of legislation by the power elite"?
The National Labor Relations Act of 1935

-Affirmed the right of workers to organize unions and placed government sanctions behind any illegal attempts to interfere with this right
186
What is the final and most visible aspect of corporate domination in the US?
The dominance of the corporate-conservative coalition and its power elite when they are united
191
Domhoff claims that the routinized ways of acting in the United States have what relation to the rules and regulations needed by the corporate community to grow and make profits?
The routinized ways of acting follow from the same rules and regulations that the dominant upper-class composed of business owners and high-level executives have made into policy
199
What is the Pluralist Theory of Power in the US?
Pluralists put great weight on the power of the general public on issues through forming into interest groups that shape public opinion and lobby elected officials

-Citizens have the power to support candidates and political parties that are sympathetic with their preferences.

-Pluralists believe that corporate leaders are too divided among themselves to dominate government.
201
What is the Elite Theory of Power?
Organizations are the basis of power, because their leaders command great resources, have more information than those below them in the hierarchy, and can reward followers and punish critics

-Emphasize that the upper class remains open to challenge by other elite interests
206
What is the State Autonomy Theory of Power?
Predominant power is located in government, not in the general citizenry or a dominant social class.

The government's (State's) power is due to:
1. its monopoly on the legitimate use of force in the country
2. its unique role in defending the country from foreign rivals
3. its regulatory and taxing powers

Independent experts can be powerful because they haev info that is valuable to state officials.

Government officials have the ability to impose their views on the corporate world.
17
What is the Class Domination Theory of Power?
the commands of a group or class are carried out with relatively little resistance, which is possible because that group or class has been able to establish the rules and customs through which everyday life is conducted.
What is Domination?
The institutionalized outcome of great distributive power.
Which class is the Dominant class?
The upper class is a dominant class because the cumulative effect of its various distributive powers leads to a situation where is policies are generally accepted by most Americans
-Economic power
-Political power (control of two political parties)
-Policy-planning
-Opinion-shaping
200
What evidences does Domhoff adduce to support his theory of class dominance?
Although individual rights and freedoms have expanded, corporate power has also become greater because unions have been decimated and the liberal-labor coalition splintered
201
What evidence does he adduce against Pluralism?
Evidence that pluralists use is almost entirely correlational and tells us nothing about causality.

Overlooks the role of the opinion-shaping network in conforming public opinion to the policies of the power elite.

Overlooks the fact that the public's liberal preferences on economic programs (e.g. higher minimum wage, government supported health insurance, etc) have never been fulfilled

Does not take into account factors that dilute the influence of voting in America.

Misses high degree of unity among power elite upper class.
201
What evidence does he adduce against State Autonomy?
State autonomy is only possible when a state is unified and relatively impermeable to the employees and representatives of private organizations, but the American government is neither

-Government is completely open to outside agents
-Movement of members of the power elite between the private sector and the government blurs the line between corporations and the state

Claim that experts have an independent role in developing policies is refuted because experts are part of the policy-planning network and they are selected and sponsored by one or more organizations within the policy network
What evidence does he adduce against Elite Theory?
Elite theory does not fully accept the degree to which corporate-based owners and managers dominate other elites in the US or the amount of class bias built into the policy-planning network

Underestimates the differences between corporate-dominated organizations and organizations based in the working class.
206
Domhoff believes that his book shows that it is the combination of insights from what two theories of power that explains the strength of the American power elite?
Marxist and Non-Marxist

Marxist:
dominant power group is usually the economic class that owns the means of production, although there can be government autonomy or mixed power structures in times of large-scale societal transitions.
Class struggle between owners and non-owners is the major determinant of historical change.

Non-Marxist:
Doubt that class domination and class conflict are always at the center of the power equation.
Sometimes in history, the government, military, and religious elites have had more power than business owners.
210
What use does Domhoff see for the Democratic Party in a possible liberal-labor coalition?
Development of a stronger liberal-labor coalition could use the nationwide Democratic Party as an organization base for the first time in American history.

Could allow Democrats to develop a distinct program and image that depends on their ideas rather than name recognition, personality, and campaign finance