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56 Cards in this Set

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Name three things about the skin:
largest body organ, 20 sq ft of SA, guards against environmental stresses, adapts to environmental changes
Germs are blocked at the ____ level of the skin.
epidermis
Growth and pigmentation originates in the _______.
basal cell layer
This layer contains CT and glands:
dermis
The subcutaneous layer contains:
fat
Name 9 functions of the skin:
protection, prevent penetration, perception, temp regulation, ID, communication, wound repair, absorption & secretion, production of Vit D
Nails are hard plate of ______.
keratin
As adults age the skin loses ______, looks _____,______, and ______.
elasticity; thin, wrinkled and dry
Aging adults skin are at an increased rink for ________ _________ and _______ ________.
skin tearing; shearing injuries
Aging adults skin sweat and sebaceous glands _____ which causes dry skin and increased risk of heat stroke.
decrease
This disease looks like bruising and can happen even with light touch:
Senile purpura
Hair on older adults becomes _____, ____, and changes color because of loss of ______.
thin, fine; pigment
Baldness occurs often in older adults causing them to lose more ______ ______.
body heat- need to wear hats
Facial hair growth occurs in older females due to a _____ in _____.
decrease; estrogen
Pigment protects other races from ____ ____.
UV rays
Children with severe malnourishment lose their ___ ____.
hair color
Name the 14 subjective assessments in skin, hair and nails.
previous history of skin disease, allergies, changes in pigmentation, changes in moles, excessive dryness or moisture, pruritis, excessive bruising, rashes or lesions, medications, hair loss, change in nails, environ/occupational hazards, tattoos, self care behaviors
Ecchymosis means:
bruising (excessive)
Pruritis is:
itching
Ridges in the nails can be a sign of:
poor nutrition
Changes in moles may include:
shape, color, size, bleeding, discharge
Objective assessment of the skin includes:
inspect & palpate-even color, moles, birthmarks, changes
This disease is a fungal rash that causes color loss-more common in blacks:
Vitiligo
Paleness of the skin is called:
pallor
Pallor can be caused by:
edema, cig smoking, or can be natural
Inflammation of the superficial arteries, reddening of the skin is called:
erythema
Erythema can be caused by:
fever, local inflammation (bee sting)
Bluish, mottled coloring indicates:
cyanosis
Cyanosis is an indication of:
decreased perfusion
Along with cyanosis a dec level of _______ can occur.
consciousness
Yellowish skin color as a result of inc bilirubin is:
jaundice
Being cooler in temp than normal due to trauma, stress, or cold weather is:
hypothermia
When the body temp is warmer than normal possibly due to fever or exercise:
hyperthermia
Profuse perspiration is called:
diaphoresis
When mucous membranes are dry and you see tenting in the skin this may be a sign of:
dehydration
Fluid accumulating in intercellular spaces is called:
edema
grade 1+ edema is:
mild pitting, slight indentation
grade 2+ edema is:
moderate pitting
grade 3+ edema is:
deep pitting
grade 4+ edema is:
very deep pitting
The ability of the skin to be raised up:
mobility
The ability of the skin to return quickly into place is called:
Turgor
Red freckles that usually benign:
cherry angiomas
What should look at when examining a lesion?
color, elevation, pattern, shape, size, location, drainage -laceration vs incision
Ruptures of vessels at skin surface usually caused by trauma or can be caused by leukemia or meningitis
Petechiae
What should you inspect about the hair?
inspect and palpate, color, texture, distribution, scalp lesions
What should you inspect about the nails?
inspect and palpate all nails, shape, color, consistency, capillary refill
What are the skin changes during pregnancy?
linea nigras, striae, chloasma (blotchy brown patches), vascular spiders
Name the skin chages in older adults:
lentigines (liver spots), keratoses (benign-but will occassionally bleed), skin tags
Pain receptors are called:
nociceptors
Nociceptors do what three things:
detect, location, stimulation (signal to brain)
What is neuropathic pain?
not typical pain, abnormal processing of pain message, difficult to assess & treat, it is real
Name the four sources of pain:
visceral, deep somatic, cutaneous, referred
Name the two types of pain:
acute, chronic (pain that lasts more than 6 months-abnormal response)
Remeber the three types of differences in dealing with patients and pain.
Developmental, gender, cultural
What are the subjective assessment questions for pain?
Where, when did it start, what does it feel like, how much pain do you have now, what makes it worse or better, how does pain limit function or activities, how do you behave when you are in pain, why do you think you are having the pain