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75 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
generalized whiteness of the skin, hair and eyebrows, which is caused by a congenital inability to produce melanin.
partial or complete loss of hair
decrease number in RBCs.
Apocrine glands
sweat glands associated with hair follicles.(think Apocrine=Axillary)
arrector pili muscle
muscle that causes contraction of the skin and hair="goosebumps"
carotenemia is...
an orange-yellow coloration of palmar and plantar surfaces caused by elevated levels of serum carotene.
cherry angioma is...
a bright-red, circumscribed area that may be flat or raised and that darkens with age.
cyanosis is...
blue coloration of the skin or nails that occurs when more than 5g/dl of hemoglobin is deoxygenated in the blood.
dehydration is...
lack of fluid in tissues.
second layer of skin(corium)
a red-purple discoloration of varying size caused by extravasation of blood in the skin, (black & blue mark)
eccrine glands
sweat glands that are not associated with hair follicles
transluscent substance that aids in the Formation of Keratin
multilayer outer covering of the skin
granulation tissue
inflamed tissue, new vessels, and WBCs at the base of a wound in the process of healing
excessive body hair
yellow-green to orange cast skin, caused by increased bilirubin level
lesions of the epidermis characterized by o v e r growth of the horny layer
liver spots
localized roughness, thickness of the skin
mast cells
body's major source of tissue histamine, which triggers the body's reaction to invasive allergens
keratinized cells that form the nail plate
pigmented moles
reddish-purple sking discoloration that is less than 0.5cm in diameter and does not blanch!
spider angioma(star shaped)
bright-red, STAR shaped marking that often has a central pulsation, it blanches when pressure is applied
stratum germinativum
basal layer of deepest layer of the epidermis
venus star(linear shaped)
linear shape blue vascular pattern on the skin
patchy, symmetrical areas of white on the skin
FIVE main functions of the skin are:
What normal variations may be noted on a dark-skinned patient?
freckling of gums, gingiva may appear blue, vitiligo
What is the "difference"between a primary lesion and a secondary lesion?
A primary lesion originates from previously normal skin;
a secondary lesion originates from a primary lesion
What are the characteristics of a lesion?
flat,raised, change in color, odor, measurement
ABCDE Mnemonic for evaluatin skin lesions
Danger signs of potentially cancerous lesions:
Rapid change in size, change in color, irregular borders, elevation in a previously flat mole, multiple colors in a lesion, pain or tenderness, inflammation, bleeding
Stages of Pressure Ulcers:
STAGE I: area is reddened but sking is not broken
STAGE II: the epidermal and dermal layers have sustained injury.
STAGE III: the subcutaneous tissues have sustained injury.
STAGE IV: Muscle tissue and, perhaps, bone have sustained injury.
First Degree burn:
-epidermis injured or destroyed;-may be damage to the dermis;-hair follicles & sweat glands intact;-skin is red & dry;-burn is painful
Second Degree burn:
-epidermis & upper layers of the dermis=destroyed;-deeper dermis=injured;-skin=red blistery w/exudate;-also called "partial thickness burn"
Third Degree burn:
epidermis & dermis=destroyed;-subcutaneous tissue may be injured;-hair follicles,sweat glands & nerve endings=destroyed;-skin leathery in appereance;-burn is painless because nerve endings are destroyed;-also called "full-thickness burn"
Fourth Degree burn:
-skin is white, red, black,tan, or brown with exposed & damaged subcutaneous tissue, muscle or bone;-everything is destroyed so burn is painless.
Functions of Hair:
Warmth; protection; sensation
Function of Nails:
Protection to distal surface of digits
Risk factors for Skin Cancer:
UV light exposure, family hx of skin cancer, 2nd degree burns before age 18, acute sunburns,outdoor employment, melanocytic precursor lesion
General assessment of Integumentary System:
Well-lit room, good visualization, explain process to patient, provide warmth and privacy, head to toe assessment, may be include in regional exam for acute illness
may be a sign of abuse
4-point grading scale for edema:
+0 no pitting
+1 0"to 1/4" pitting
+2 1/4' to 1/2" moderate
+3 1/2" to 1" significant
+4 1"+ severe pitting
recurring episodes of noninflammatory swelling of the skin, brain, viscera, & mucous membranes. Rapid onset with resolution requiring hrs to days.
edema due to the obstructionof a lymphatic vessel.
Nonpalpable lesions:
Macule, Patch
Palpable lesions:
Papule, Plaque, Nodules, Tumor, Wheal
Fluid-filled cavity lesions:
Vescicle, Bullae, Pustule, Cyst
Above the skin surface lesions:
Scales, Crust, Lichenification (roughness), Atrophy
Below the skin surface lesions:
Erosion, Fissure, Ulcer, Scar, Keloid, Excoriation
Wound evaluation:
Location, color, drainage, odor, size, depth, measure the borders, draw a picture to depict wound
Inspection of Hair:
Color, distribution=>alopecia, hirsutism, scalp lesions, palpate texture
Inspection of Nails:
Color, shape & configuration, nail angles, palpate texture
More abnormal lesions:
Rubella, Koplick's spots(measles), Scarlet fever, Rocky Mountain spotted fever(rash w/borders), Lyme's disease, Warts, Urticaria(histamine release)
Gerontological variations of the skin:
Wrinkles, loss of subcutaneous fat, dimished elasticity, lentigo(liver spots), keratosis(overgrowth of layer)
Gerontological variations of the hair:
Gray, Loss
Gerontological variations of the nails:
Thicken, yellow, overcurvature
Arrangement of lesions:
Individual= insect bites
grouped= herpes simplex
confluent=childhood exanthema
linear= poison ivy, dermatitis
polycyclic=urticaria,rx reactions
zosteriform(along nerve root)=herpes zoster
Capillary refill should return to normal within:
2 to 3 seconds
brown nail plate. ie. Addison's disease, malaria
white striations or dots. ie. Trauma, infections, psoriasis,anemia, cirrhosis,hypercalcemia
Normal nail angle:
Curved nail variant of normal:
160* or less
Early clubbing:
a fungal infection of the nail
Pediculosis capitis:
Head lice
Tinea capitis:
Spongy nail base is indicative of:
nail clubbing caused by chronic bronchitis, emphysema, heart disease, or impaired tissue oxygenation over a long period
Skin palpation is done with:
dorsal surfaces of hands & fingers.
The areas of ecchymosis that may indicate physical abuse are:
base of the skull, face, buttocks, breasts, or abdomen, burns, belt buckle, bite marks
Safety tips for the elderly:
Identify environmental hazards and minimze risk; decrease risk for thermal injuries; maintain skin integrity and prevent damage
The skin excretes:
H2O, salts, nitrogenous wastes, vitamin D