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68 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What are the functions of bones?
Support, protection, assistance in movement, mineral homeostasis, blood cell production, triglyceride storage.
How do bones support the body?
Structural framework for the body, supports soft tissues and provides points of attachment for tendons and muscles.
Trabecular Patterns.
Lamellae arranged in an irregular latticework of thin plates of bone.
How do bones protect the body?
Protects internal organs from injury.
How do bones assist in movement?
When muscles contract they pull on the bones to produce movement.
What is mineral homeostasis?
The function of bones to store several minerals, especially calcium and phosphorus, which strengthen bones; releases minerals into the bloodstream to maintain critical mineral balances and to distribute to other organs.
Where are blood cells produced?
within certain parts of bones, red bone marrow produces red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets by hemopoiesis.
What is hemopoiesis?
Formation of blood cells in the body.
Triglyceride Storage (function of bones)
Newborn bone marrow is all red; with increasing age, production decreases and the bone marrow turns yellow. Consists primarily of adipocytes.
What are the four types of Bone Cells
Osteogenic cells, Osteoblasts, Osteocytes, Osteoclasts.
Osteogenic Cells
Unspecialized cells derived from mesenchyme. Only bone cells that undergo cell division; develop into osteoblasts. Found in the inner layer of the periosteum, in the endosteum and the canals of bone that contains blood vessels.
Bone-building cells. Secrete some of the organic components and mineral salts needed in bone formation.
Mature bone cells, the principal cells of bone tissue. Maintain daily cellular activites of bone tissue.
Huge cells that develop from fusion of moncytes. (WBC's; up to 50 cells may fuse). They function in the resorption of bone, which is important in the development, growth, maintenance and repair of bone.
What are the structures of Long Bones?
Diaphysis, Epiphysis, Metaphysis, Articular Cartilage, Periosteum, Compact Bone, and Spongy Bone.
The shaft or body; long main portion of bone; the area where bone grows in width.
Medullary cavity
Space within the diaphysis that contains the fatty yellow bone marrow.
Membrane that contains bone forming cells that line the medullary cavity.
The ends of long bone; the area where bone grows in length.
Regions, in mature bone, where the diaphysis joins the epiphysis. In growing bone, it is the region including the epiphyseal plate, where cartilage is reinforced and then replaced by bone.
Articular Cartilage
Thin layer of hyaline cartilage covering the epiphysis where bone forms a joint with another bone. Reduces friction and absorbs shock.
A tough dense connective tissue that surrounds the surface of bone where it's not covered by articulating surfaces.
What is the function of the Periosteum?
Essential for bone growth, protection, repair, and nutrition. Serves as a point of attachment for ligaments and tendons.
What are the two layers of the Periosteum?
Fibrous layer and the Osteogenic Layer.
Fibrous Layer.
Outer layer of connective tissue containing blood vessels, lymphatic vessels and nerves that pass into bone.
Osteogenic Layer
Contains elastic fibers, blood vessels and bone cells; provides nourishment and assists in fracture repairs.
Compact Bone
Dense outer layer of all bones. Provides protection, support and resists the stresses produced by weight and movement.
Spongy Bone
Found deep inside Compact Bone. Contains spaces, which makes bone lighter. Filled with red or yellow bone marrow which is responsible for blood cell formation.
When does bone formation begin?
Begins the 6th to 7th week of embryonic life and continues throughout adulthood.
Embryonic Connective Tissue
provides the template for the ossification of bone later in life.
What are the two methods of bone formation?
Intramembranous Ossification and Endochondral Ossification.
Intramembranous Ossification
The simpler and most direct method of bone formation. Osteoblasts cluster at different sites in a fibrous membrane. Osteoblasts secrete organic matrix of bone. Mineral salts are deposited (calcification). Spongy bone is formed and the ossification centers later fuse together.
What bones are created with Intramembranous Ossification?
Skull bones, mandible, and the clavicles are formed this way.
Endochondral ossification.
The replacement of cartilage by bone.
What occurs during Endochondral Ossification?
Perichondrium forms osteogenic cells. Periosteum develops and osteoblasts deposit compact bone. Cartilage center becomes Vascularized. Osteoblasts invade diaphysis and form the primary center of ossification for spongy bone development in the diaphysis. Process continues toward the epiphysis. Resorption of spongy bone in diaphysis leads to formation of medullary cavity. Blood vessels enter the epiphysis and the secondary center of ossification develops at the ends of bone. A cartilage bond is maintained between the two centers of ossification called the epiphyseal disk plate. This region is where bone grows in length.
What are the steps of Bone Fracture Repair?
Fracture Hematoma, Fibrocartilaginous Callus, Boney Callus, Remodeling.
Fracture Hematoma
A blood clot that usually occurs 6-8 hours after the fracture due to torn blood vessels at the site. Blood flow stops when this hematoma forms, which causes bone cell death at the fracture.
Fibrocartilaginous Callus
Lasts about 3 weeks. Blood capillaries grow into the fracture hematoma and results in granulation tissue, now called a procallus. Fibroblasts and osteagenic cells invade the procallus. The osteogenic cells develop into chondroblasts to produce fibrocartilage, and the procallus is transformed into a fibrocartilaginous Callus.
A callus is a mass of repair tissue that bridges the broken ends of the bone.
Osteogenic cells develop into these to produce fibrocartilage
Bony Callus
Lasts about 3-4 months. In areas closer to healthy bone, the osteogenic cells become osteoblasts, which begin to produce spongy bone. In time the fibrocartilage is converted to spongy bone, then called a bony callus.
Remodeling (bone fracture)
The final phase of bone fracture healing, where osteoclasts absorb dead bone cells and compact bone replaces spongy bone.
What are the types of bones?
Long, short, flat, irregular, sesamoid.
Long Bones
Greater in length than width: femur and humerus
Short Bones
Cube-like with their lengths and widths roughly equal; wrist and ankle bones.
Flat Bones
Plate-like structures with parallel sides: ribs and scapula
Irregular Bones
Variety of shapes: vertebrae and facial bones.
Small rounded bones that occur in tendons adjacent to joints: Patella
What are the types of Surface Markings?
Fissure, foramen, meatus, Groove or Sulcus, Fossa, Condyle, Head, Facet, Tubercle, Tuberosity, Trochanter, Crest, Spinous Process, Epicondyle.
A narrow slit between adjacent parts of bones through which blood vessels or nerves pass.
An opening through which blood vessels, nerves or ligaments pass.
A tube like opening, running within a bone.
Groove or Sulcus
A furrow that contains a blood vessel, nerve or tendon.
A shallow depression on a bone.
A large rounded prominence at the end of a bone.
Head (bone)
A rounded articular projection supported on the neck of a bone.
A smooth, flat articular surface.
A small, rounded projection
A large, rounded, roughened projection.
A very large blunt projection.
Crest (bone)
A prominent ridge or elongated projection.
Spinous process
A sharp, slender process
A prominence above a condyle.
What are the divisions of the skeletal system?
Axial Skeleton and the Appendicular Skeleton.
How many bones are in the Axial Skeleton.
80 bones.
What bones are included in the Axial Skeleton.
Skull, Hyoid, Auditory Ossicles, Vertebral Column, and Thorax.
How many bones are in the Appendicular Skeleton?
126 bones.
What bones are included in the Appendicular Skeleton?
Should girdle (clavicle and scapula), upper extremities (humerus, ulna, radius, carpals, metacarpals, and phalanges), pelvic girdle, and lower extremities (femur, patella, tibia, fibula, tarsal's, metatarsals, and phalanges.