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137 Cards in this Set

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4 characteristics of potentially hazardous foods
1. moist
2. contains protein
3. has a ph that is neutral or slightly acidic
4. requires time and temperature control to prevent the growth of microorganisms and toxin production
examples of potentially hazardous foods
milk products
eggs
meat
cooked foods
beans or rice
raw sprouts
garlic infused oil
tofu
sliced melon
synthetic ingredients like tvp
baked potatoes
Why are elderly people at a higher risk for foodborne illness?
Their immune systems have weakened with age
an incident in which two or more people experience the same illness after eating the same food
foodborne illness
the three major types of hazards to food safety
biological hazards
chemical hazards
physical hazards
people at high risk for foodborne illness
infants and preschool children
pregnant women
elderly
people taking certain medications like antibiotics or immunosuppresants
people who are seriously ill
the transfer of microorganisms from one food or surface to another
cross-contamination
two groups of foodbourne microorganisms
spoilage
pathogens
do spoilage microorganisms typically cause illness?
no
give an example of a spoilage microorganism
mold
what is a pathogen?
a microorganism that causes illness when ingested
can pathogens be seen, smelled, or tasted in food?
no
six conditions that microorganisms (except viruses) need to grow
FAT TOM
food
acidity
time
temperature
oxygen
moisture
Basic description of a bacteria
living single cell organism
6 ways bacteria can be carried
food
water
soil
animals
humans
insects
can some bacteria survive freezing?
yes
define spore
a different form that some bacteria can take to protect themself. This form can resist heat.
toxin
poison produced by some bacteria that can cause illness. It is not typically destroyed by cooking.
is it possible for viruses to survive freezing and cooking
yes
how can viruses be transmitted (3)
person to person
people to food
people to food contact surfaces
usual cause of viral food contamination
improper hygiene of the food handler
what can viruses contaminate
food and water supply
classification of viruses
infections
major way to prevent contamination of food by viruses
good personal hygiene
minimize bare hand contact with ready to eat foods
characteristics of parasites
living organisms that need a host to survive
small, often microscopic
infect animals and can be transmitted to humans
can contaminate food and water
characteristics of mold
spoils food and sometimes causes illness
not destroyed by freezing
can produce toxins
example of a mold toxin
aflatoxin
favorable growth conditions for mold
acidic food
low water activity
FDA recommendations for mold on hard cheese
cut away moldy areas and at least an inch around them
procedure for moldy food
throw it out unless it is part of the product like gorgonzola, camembert, or brie cheese
favorable growth conditions for yeast
acidic food
low water activity
characteristics of yeast spoilage
smell or taste of alcohol
reason for smell or taste of alcohol in yeast spoiled foods
carbon dioxide and alcohol are produced as yeast consumes food.
procedure for dealing with yeast -spoiled food
throw it out
characteristics of yeast-spoiled food
pink discoloration, slime, bubbling
these result when a person eats food containing pathogens, which then grow in the intestines and cause illness
foodborne infections
how long does it typically take for symptoms of a foodborne infection to appear?
A while. The bacteria has to multiply to levels that will cause illness first
these result when a person eats food containing toxins that cause illness
foodborne intoxications
how long does it typically take for symptoms of a foodborne intoxication to appear?
rather quickly, within a few hours
these result when a person eats a food containing pathogens, which then produce toxins in the intestines
foodborne toxin-mediated infections
the amount of moisture available in food for microorganism growth
water activity
temperature danger zone
temps at which conditions are favorable for growth
(41 degrees F to 135 degrees F)
bacteria that causes campylobacteriosis
campylobacter jejuni
foods commonly associated with campylobacteriosis
poultry and contaminated water
common symptoms of campylobacteriosis
diarrhea (watery or bloody)
cramping
fever
headache
measures to prevent campylobacteriosis
cook food to minimum required internal temperatures
prevent cross-contamination between raw foods and ready-to eat foods
type of illness that campylobacteriosis is
foodborne infection
bacteria that causes salmonellosis
salmonella
foods commonly associated with salmonellosis
poultry and eggs
dairy products
beef
common symptoms of salmonellosis
diarrhea
cramps
vomiting
fever
measures to prevent salmonellosis
cook food to minimum required internal temperatures
prevent cross-contamination between raw foods and ready-to eat foods
prevent food handlers from working if they have been diagnosed with salmonellosis
type of illness that is salmonellosis
foodborne infection
bacteria that causes shigellosis
shigella
foods commonly associated with shigellosis
food that is easily contaminated by hands
food that has come into contact with contaminated water
common symptoms of shigellosis
bloody diarrhea
abdominal pain and cramping
fever
measures to prevent shigellosis
control flies
wash hands frequently
type of illness that is shigellosis
prevent food handlers from working if they have been diagnosed with shigellosis or they have diarrhea
bacteria that causes listeriosis
listeria monocytogenes
foods commonly associated with listeriosis
raw meat
unpasteurized dairy products
ready to eat meats and cheeses
common symptoms of listeriosis
spontaneous abortion in 3rd trimester
newborns: sepsis, pneumonia, meningitis
measures to prevent listeriosis
cook food to minimum required internal temperatures
prevent cross-contamination between raw foods and ready-to eat foods
don't use unpasteurized dairy products
get rid of any product that is past the expiration date
type of illness that is listeriosis
foodborne infection
bacteria that causes
vibrio gastroenteritis
vibrio varities
foods commonly associated with vibrio gastroenteritis
raw or partially cooked oysters
common symptoms of vibrio gastroenteritis
diarrhea
cramping
nausea
vomiting
low grade fever
chills
(skin lesions for septicemia)
measures to prevent vibrio gastroenteritis
cook oysters to required temperatures and purchase from approved reputable supplies
type of illness that is vibrio gastroenteritis
foodborne infection
bacteria that causes bacillus cereus gastroenteritis
bacillus cereus
foods commonly associated with bacillus cereus gastroenteritis
rice
corn
potatoes
veggies
meat products
common symptoms of bacillus cereus gastroenteritis
nausea
vomiting
diarrhea
cramps
measures to prevent bacillus cereus gastroenteritis
cook food to minimum required internal temperatures
hold food at proper temperatures
cool food properly
type of illness that is bacillus cereus gastroenteritis
foodborne intoxication
bacteria that causes staphylococcal gastroenteritis
staphylococcal aureus
foods commonly associated with staphylococcal gastroenteritis
salads containing hazardous foods (meats or eggs)
deli meat
common symptoms of staphylococcal gastroenteritis
nausea
vomiting
cramps
measures to prevent staphylococcal gastroenteritis
wash hands after touching hair, face or body
cover cuts
cook hold and cool food properly
type of illness that is staphylococcal gastroenteritis
foodborne intoxication
bacteria that causes botulism
clostridium botulinum
foods commonly associated with botulism
improperly canned foods
reduced oxygen packaged foods
temperature abused veggies
common symptoms of botulism
nausea and vomiting
weakness
double vision
difficulty speaking and swallowing
measures to prevent botulism
inspect canned goods for damage
hold, cool, and reheat food properly
type of illness that is botulism
foodborne intoxication
bacteria that causes clostridium perfringens gastroenteritis
clostridium perfringens
foods commonly associated with clostridium perfringens gastroenteritis
meat
poultry
items made with meats
common symptoms of clostridium perfringens gastroenteritis
diarrhea
severe abdominal pain
measures to prevent clostridium perfringens gastroenteritis
hold, cool, and reheat foods properly
type of illness that is clostridium perfringens gastroenteritis
toxin-mediated infection
bacteria that causes hemorrhagic colitis
E. Coli
foods commonly associated with hemorrhagic colitis
raw or undercooked ground beef
contaminated produce
common symptoms of hemorrhagic colitis
bloody diarrhea
abdominal cramps
measures to prevent hemorrhagic colitis
cook food to minimum required internal temperatures
prevent cross-contamination between raw foods and ready-to eat foods
prevent food handlers from working if they have been diagnosed with hemorrhagic colitis or have diarrhea
hold, cool, and reheat foods properly
type of illness that is hemorrhagic colitis
toxin-mediated infection
bacteria that causes hepatitis A
hepatitis A
foods commonly associated with hepatitis A
raw and partially cooked shellfish
ready to eat foods
common symptoms of hepatitis A
fever
weakness nausea
abdominal pain
jaundice
measures to prevent hepatitis A
wash hands properly
minimize bare hand contact with foods
prevent food handlers from working if they have been diagnosed with hepatitis A
purchase shellfish from reputable suppliers
type of illness that is hepatitis A
foodborne viral infection
bacteria that causes norovirus gastroenteritis
norovirus
foods commonly associated with norovirus gastroenteritis
ready to eat food
shellfish contaminated by sewage
common symptoms of norovirus gastroenteritis
vomiting
diarrhea
nausea
cramps
measures to prevent norovirus gastroenteritis
wash hands properly
purchase shellfish from approved suppliers
prevent food handlers from working if they have been diagnosed with norovirus or have diarrhea and vomiting
type of illness that is norovirus gastroenteritis
foodborne viral infection
bacteria that causes anisakiasis
anisakis simplex
foods commonly associated with anisakiasis
undercooked fish
common symptoms of anisakiasis
coughing up worms
abdominal pain
nausea
vomiting
diarrhea
measures to prevent anisakiasis
cook fish to required minimum temperatures
purchase fish from reputable suppliers
type of illness that is anisakiasis
foodborne parasite infection
bacteria that causes cyclosporiasis
cyclospora cayetanensis
foods commonly associated with cyclosporiasis
produce washed with water containing the parasite
common symptoms of cyclosporiasis
nausea
cramps
mild fever
diarrhea alternating with constipation
measures to prevent cyclosporiasis
purchase produce from reputable suppliers
wash hands properly
prevent food handlers from working if they have diarrhea
type of illness that is cyclosporiasis
foodborne parasite infection
bacteria that causes cryptosporidiosis
cryptosporidium parvum
foods commonly associated with cryptosporidiosis
untreated water
produce washed in contaminated water
common symptoms of cryptosporidiosis
watery diarrhea
cramps
nausea
weight loss
measures to prevent cryptosporidiosis
use properly treated water
purchase produce from reputable suppliers
wash hands
prevent food handlers from working if they have diarrhea
type of illness that is cryptosporidiosis
foodborne parasite infection
bacteria that causes giardiasis
giardia duodenalis
foods commonly associated with giardiasis
improperly treated water
common symptoms of giardiasis
fever
loose stools
abdominal pain
nausea
measures to prevent giardiasis
use properly treated water
wash hands
prevent food handlers from working if they have diarrhea
type of illness that is giardiasis
foodborne parasite infection
biological contaminants
toxins in seafood, plants, and mushrooms
chemical contaminants
toxic metals
pesticides
cleaning products
physical contaminants
accidental introduction of foreign objects
methods to prevent biological contamination
proper handling
use only approved suppliers
methods to prevent chemical contamination
use only foodgrade containers and utensils.
store chemicals in labeled containers
pesticides should only be applied by a licensed professional
methods to prevent physical contamination
inspect the food you receive
take steps to ensure it will not become contaminated during the flow of food
8 most common food allergens
milk
eggs
fish
shellfish
wheat
soy
peanut butter
tree nuts
symptoms of food allergens
itching in and around moouth, face, and scalp
tightening of throat
shortness of breath or wheezing
hives
swelling
GI symptoms
loss of consciousness
death
type of illness that can occur in fish that have been time-temperature abused
scombroid poisoning
type of toxin that is produced in scombroid poisoning
histamine
way to avoid poisoning by mushroom toxins
only purchase from reputable suppliers
way to help customers who have food allergies
fully describe each menu item including any secret ingredients
can toxins be destroyed by cooking or freezing?
no
what should never be used to store high acid foods
metal containers
types of natural plant toxins
uncooked fava beans
rhubarb leaves
apricot kernels
milk from cows that have eaten snakeroot
honey from bees that have gathered nectar from rhodedendrons or mountain laurel