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97 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
sensation
the process by which our sensory receptors and nervous system receive and represent stimulus energies from our environment
perception
the process of organizing and interpreting sensory info, enabling us to recognize meaninful objects and events
bottom up prcessing
analysis tht begins with the sensory receptors and works up to the brain's inegration of sensory info
top down processing
info processing guided by higher level mental processes as when we construct perceptions drawing on our experience and expectations
prosopagnosia
after loss of temporal lobe area essential to recognizing faces-has complete sensation by incomplete perception
psychophysics
the study of relationships between the physical characteristics of stimuli, such as their intensitym and our psychological experience of them
absoulte threshold
the minimum stimulation needed to detect a particular stimulus 50% of the time
signal detection theory
a theory predicting how and when we detect the presesnce of a faint stimulus signa lamid background stmulation (noise). assumes there is no single absolute threshold and that detection depends partly on a person's experience, expectations, motivation, and level of fatigue
-causes false alarms
subliminal
below one's absolute threshold for conscious awareness
priming
the activation, often unconsciously, of certain associations, thus predisposing one's perception, memory, or response
difference threshold
the minimum difference between two stimuli required for detection 50% of the time. we experience the difference threshold as a just noticeable difference
-constant proportion of the stimulus
weber's law
the principle that, to be perceived as different, two stimuli must differ by a constant minimum percentage
sensory adaptation
diminished sensitivity as a consequence of constant stimlation
transduction
conversion of one form of energy into another. in sensation, the transfoorming of stimulus energies, such as sights, sounds, and smells, into neural impulses our brains can interpret
wavelength
the distance from the peak of one light or sound wave to the peak of the next. electromagnetic wavelengths vary from the short blips of cosmic raws to the long pulses of radio transmission
hue
the dimension of color that is determined by the wavelengh of light, what we know as the color nams blue green, ets
intensity
the amound of energy in a light or sound wave, which we perceiv as brightness or loudness, as determined by the wave's amplitude
cornea
light enters through it, prtects the eye and bends light to provide focus
pupil
the adjustable opening in the center of the eye through which light enters
iris
a ring of muscle tissue that forms the colored protion of the eye around the pupil and controls the size of the pupil opening
lens
transparant structure behind the pupil that changes shape to help focus images on the retina
accomodation
the process by which the eyes lens changes shape to focus near or far objects on the retina
retina
the light sensistive inner surface of the eye, containing the receptor rods and cones plus layers of neurons that being the processing of visual info
acuity
sharpness of vision
nearsightedness
a condition in which nearby ojects are seen more clearly than distant objects because distant objects focus in front of the retina
farsightedness
a condition in which far away objects are seen more clearly that near objects because the image of near objects in focused behind the retina
cones
retinal receptor cells that are concenttrated near the center of thte reina and that function in daylight or in well-lit conditions. the cones detect fine detain and give rise to color sensations
rods
retinal receptors that detect black, which, and gray; necessary for peripheral and twilight vision, when cones dont repsond
bipolar cells
activate the ganglion cells
optic nerve
the nerve that carries neural impulses from the eye to the brain
fovea
the central focal point in the retina, around which the eye's cones cluster
feature detectors
nerve cells in the brain that respond to specific features of the stimulus, such as shape, angle, or movement
parallel processing
the processing of several aspects of a problem simultaneously; the brain's natural mode of informatin processing for many functinos, including vision. contrasts w/ step-by-step processing of most computers of conscious problem solving
blindsight
blindness in part of the brain's visual field due to stroke or surgery-loss of portion of brain;s visual cortex
young-helmoltz trichromatic three color theory
the theory that the retina contains three different color receptiors-one most senstive to red, one to green, one to blue-which when sitmulated in combination can produce the perception of any color
-no receptors sensitive to yellow
-when re and green sensitive cones stimulated, see yellow
subtractive color mixing
subtracts wavelengths from reflected light
additive color mixing
helholtz did- add wavelengths and increases light
opponent process theory
the theory that opposing retinal processes (red-green, yellow-blue, white-black) enable color vision. some celss are stimulated by green and inhibited b red, others are stimulated by red and inhibited by green
color constancy
perceiving familiar objects as having consistent color, even if changing illumination alters wavelengths refelcted by the object
audition
the sense or act of hearing
frequency
the number of complete wavelenghts that pass apoint in a given time
pitch
a tone's experienced highness or lowness-
-short waves=high frequency, high pitch
-long waves=low frequency, low pitch
outer ear
channels sound waves through auditory canal to eardrum
eardrum
tight membrane vibrates w/ waves
middle ear
chamber between the eardrum and cochlea containing 3 bones-hammer, anvil, and stirrup, that concentrate vibrations of the eardrum on the cochlea's oval window
cochlea
coiled, bony, fluid filled tube in the inner ear through which sound waves trigger nerve impulses
inner ear
innermost part of the ar, containing the cochlea, senicircular canals, an vestibular sacs
basilar membrane
lined w/ hair cells-triggers impulses in adjacent berve fibers-form auditory nerve
compressed
harder to hear sounds are amplified mre than loud sounds
place theory
in hearing, the theory that links the pitch we hear w/ placce where the cochlea's membrane is stimulated
-high frequencines near beginning of cochlea's membrane, low near end
frequency theory
in hearing, the theory that the rate of nerve impulses thraveling ip the auditory nere matches the frequency of a tone, thus enabling us to sense its pitch
conduction hearing loss
hearing loss cause by dammage to the mechanical system that cnducts sound waves to the cochlea
sensorineural hearing loss
a hearing loss caused by damage to the cochlea's receptor cells or the auditory nerves; aka nerve deafness
-caused by biological changes linked w/ heredity, agin, prolonged exposure loud nose/ music
cochlear implant
a device for converting sounds into electrical signals and stimulating the auditory nerve through electrodes threaded into the cochlea
tinnitus
reinging in the ears sensation
gate control theory
theory that the spinal cord contains a nerological gate that blocks pain signals or allows them to pass on ot the brain. the gate is opened by the actibity of pain signals traveling up small nerve fibers and is closed by activity in larger fibers or by info coming from brain
unami
flavor enhancer monosodium gultamate
sensory interaction
the principle tha tone sense ma;yu influence another, as when the smell of food influences its taste
synaesthesia
where one sort of sensation produces another
kinesthesis
the system for sensing the position and movement of individual body parts
vestibular sense
the sense of body movement and position, including the sense of balance-inner ear
perception
select, organize, and interpreting our sensations
selective attention
the focus of conscious awareness on a particualr stimulus, as in the cocktail party effet
cocktail party effect
the ability to pay attention to only one voice among many
inattentional blindness/chage blindness
failing to see visisble objects wen our attention is directed elsewhere
choice blindness
showed women faces-then chose 1 face, then switched it and asked why chose face and didnt switch
visual capture
the tendency for vision to dominate other senses
gestalt
an organized whole. gestalt psychologists emphasiced our tendency to integrate pieces of info into meaningful wholes
figure ground
the organization of fthe visual field into objects that stand out from their surroundings
grouping
the perceptual tendency to organize stimuli into cohenerent groups
-proximity, similarity, cointinuity, connectedness, closure
depth perception
the ability to see objects in 3 dimensions although the images that strike the etina are 2 dimensional, allows us to judge distance
visual cliff
a lab devicer for testing depth perception in infants and young animals
binocular cues
depth cues, such as retinal disparit and convergence, that depend on use of 2 eyes
retinal dearity
a binocular cue for percepving depth: by comparing images from 2 eyeballs, the brain computed dostance-the greater the disparity (difference) between the 2 images, the closer the object
convergence
a binocular cue for perceiving depth; the extent to which the eyes converge inwards when looking at an object. the greater the inward strain, the closer the object
monocular cues
depth cues, such as interposition and linear perspetive, available to either eye alone
relative size
2 objects similar in size, perceive the one that casts the smaller retinal image as farther away
interposition
if 1 object partially bocks our view of another, we perceive it as close
relative clarity
perceive hazy objects as farther waway than sharp, clear objects
texture gradient
gradual change from a coarse, distinct texture to a fine, indisticny texture signals increasing distance
relative height
perceive objecter higher in field of vision as farther away because we perceive the lower part of a figure ground illustration as closer
relative movition (motion parallax)
as move objects that are stable they appaer to move. objects beyond fixation point appear to move w/ you and the farther awa, the faster the move
linear perspective
parallel lines appear to converge w/ distance--more lines converge, the greater their perceived distance
light and shadow
nearby objects reflect more light to our eyes
stroboscopic movement
brain perceive continuout movement in a rapid series of slightly varying images
phi phenomenon
an illusion of movement created when 1 or more adjacent lights blink on and off in quick succession
lightness constancy
we perceive an object as having a constant lightness even while its illumination varies
relative luminance
the amound of light an object reflects relative to ties surroundings
perceptual adaptation
in vision, the ability to adjust to an artifically dispalced or even inverted visual field
perceptual set
a mental predispostiion to percive one thing and not another
-lockness monster
-schemas influcne how interpret ambiguous senasations w/ top down processing
human factors psychologists
a branch of psychology tht explores how people and machines interact and how machines anad physical environmnets can be made safe and easy to use
extrasensory perception (ESP)
the controversial clain that perception can occur apart from sensory input/ said to include telepathy, clairvoryance, and precognition
parapsychology
the study of paranormal phneomena, including ESP and psychokinesis
teleptathy
mind to mind communication
clairvoyance
sensing that a friend;s house is on fire
prcognition
perceiving future events
psychokenisis
mind over matter- levititating a table or influencing the roll of a die