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72 Cards in this Set

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#61- Prince Henry the Navigator
The Portugese had always looked to the sea and different lands for wealth. In 1415, Prince Henry the Navigator participated int he capture of the North African port of Ceuta from the Muslims. Prince Henry was inspired to discover and conquer more of Afroca. he opened a navigation school in Lisbon and his students were mostly Italians who wanted to find a way around Africa to England.
#62- Bartholomew Dias
In 1487, the Portugese captain named Bartholomew Dias sailed aroun the Cape of Good Hope at the southern tip of Africa.
#63- Vasco Da Gama
In 1498, Vasco da Gama reached the coast of India, defeating the Arab Fleets that patrolled the Indian Ocean because the Portugese were the first to mount cannons on their ships and they deployed their ships in squadrons instead of going alone.
#64- Christopher Colombus
Since the Portugese controlled the African route to India, the Spanish tried an Atlantic route. Christopher Columbus set sell and after 33 days, he landed at the Bahamas. He thought they were in India so he called the people Indians and said they were friendly and easy to enslave.
#65- Ferdinand Megellan
Ferdinand Magellan set out to circumnavigate the globe in 1519. He died in the Phillipines but his ship did make it all the way around, therefore proving that another continent existed.
#66- Hernan Cortez and the Aztec Empire
In 1519, Hernan Cortez landed in Mexico with a force of 600 men, but he soon gained allies in his war aginst the Aztecs. The Aztecs thought the Spainards were gods and Montezuma, the emperor, gave them gifts, which prompted the Spainards to want more and to eventually take over the Aztec Empire, calling it New Spain.
#67- Francisco Pizarro
Francisco Pizarro, a Spanish soldier, found the Inca Empire and only had a small force of 200 men. He captured their emperor Atahualpa, and ruled through him, getting huge amounts of gold as ransom. Pizarro soon grew tired of ruling through Atahualpa and he killed him. There was no resistance because western technology and disease diminished the strength of the Inca's. It took a while but they soon had all the lands under control.
#68- Haciendas
The Spanish set out to create Haciendas, or plantations, to exploit the riches of the land. The native's, who had now been enslaved, were dying at an amazing rate and the owners needed slaves. They turned to Africa and began to take natives from there and bring them to America to work in the New World.
#69- Monarchical States
In the period of the monarchical states, the king was deemed absolute power because his kingship was God-given and no one could argue with him or be more powerful then him. This idea contradicted the limits that had been set on kings during medieval times.
#70- Absolute power
Absolute Power meant that the king had all power and no one coul override him. He was the supreme ruler.
#71- Three Characteristics of New-Nation States
Three characteristics were growing bureaucrazation because more and more people were relying on the government for their salaries. The second is the existence of a permanent mercanary army which meant that armies were becoming more sophisticated and the countries needed an annual army instead of an occasional army. This played into the hands of the monarchical states because they could fund their own army. The third characteristic is the growing need to tax becausethe monarchy needed to fund the army and the monarchy needed the army to control the rebellious pheasants because they wanted the high taxes lifted.
#72- Treaty of Lodi
Italy stayed away from the supreme ruler idea, but Kingdoms such as France and England wanted to rule these small states such as Milan and Naples. To avoid this, they signed the Treaty of Lodi(1455) and they united. Together, Kings could not challenge them.
#73- Savonarola
Savonarola was a Dominican Friar who had kicked out the Medici rulers in Florence and taked ove the rule. This compltete religious and political reconstruction of the city marked its end as the leader of the renaissance. When Ludovico realized his wrong in letting the French in to invade italy, he joined the fight to expel them and when they did they also restored the Medici family as the rulers. The Medici's burnt Savonarola at the stake with the permission of the papacy who hated him because he wanted a complete overhaul of the Church.
#74- Niccolo Machiavelli
Niccolo Machiavelli wrote in his book, The Prince, to the Medici family, who had taken over his government, that they needed someone who would ruthlessly expel the foreigners.
#75- Ferdinand and Isabella
In the 15th century, Spain was united after being split into several kingdoms. The unification was a result of the Marriage of Ferdinand, the King of Aragon, and Isabella, the queen of Castille. They joined forces and conquered he Islamic country states in the south of Spain. They tried to make Spain a totally Catholic Country.
#76- Charle V
Through a series of marriages, Isabella and Ferdinand's grandson, Charles V, became the King of an empire that dominated Europe. He had the best foot soldiers in Europe and was very wealthy. He created the Holy Roman Empire and divided it between his son and his brother, his brother getting the worser east and his son getting Spain and the better west.
#77- Philip II
Philip, the son, struggled to maintain control over the North were Calvinism was spreading. He put down a revolt in the Netherlands, therefore making the people rebel. In an attempt to restore Spain's former control, He launched the Spanish Armada at England who had been aiding the rebels in the Netherlands and the North. The Armada was defeated. This forced Spain to become an independent state and release it's hold on the other countries.
#78- Revolt in the Netherlands
Philip was caught in a web when he attempted to put dow a revolt in the Netherlands. This made many other Clavinists rebel and Philip had trouble controling them.
#79- Spnanish Armada
In 1588 Philip launched the great Spanish Armada in an attempt to stop England who was aiding in the rebelion. The huge Spanish Galleons were sefeated by the smaller, faster ships of the English and this was a great defeat for Spain. This forced Spain to become an independent state and relinquish it's hold over Europe.
#80- Golden Age of Spain
The sixteen-hundreds were a golden age for spain where great wirters came forth like Cervantes who wrote the Don Quixote which tells of Spain's chivalvry. The greek born El Greco was a great Spanish painter who depicted Spain as having it all.
#81- Cervantes
In Spain's golden age the best writer was Cervantes who wrote about the glory of Spains chivalvry in his book Don Quixote.
#82- El Greco
The greek born El Greco was a great Spanish painter who depicted Spain as "having it all."
#83- Price Revolution
The prices on things went up in the fifeteenth and sixteenth century. This was known as the Price Revolution. Historians are trying to connect this to tensions at the time, both political and religious.
#84- Enclosure and Rural Poverty
The rich social class called the gentry were allowed to accept the enclosure of lands because of their social status. These lands were initially used by the community as grazing grounds. Sir Thomas More reffered to this as sheep devouring men. Rural poverty became a huge problem in the Middle Early Age. Famrers were reduced to beggars and someone had to take care of them. In Catholic lands, the church was the main provider for charity but in protestant lands it fell on the rich and wealthy. In the west the rural overpopulation was a problem but in the East under population was an even bigger problem because the land owners were binding the pesants to the land in a process of enserfments.
#85- Guile production-to-Capitalist Entrepeneurs
Guilds, which had started in the High Middle Ages, began to come back. Guilds contuined to play a role in the growth of commodoties until the French Revolution. The guild method of production was being supplanted by the capitalist entrepenurs and required a lot of money to get started. The guild were going out of business because of this new method, so giuildmasters were becoming rare and that dream was fading, which made them mad.
#86- peace of Aupsberg
Over the years the Holy Roman Empire broke up but Charles V tried to unify it again and the Lutherans stood in his way. The Peace of Augsburg siginified the end of religious wars in 1555 and the princes decided the religion for their state. But this didn't include Calvinism and that created conflicts. The thirty yers war decided if Charles V dream would become reality.
#87- Thirty Years War
King Ferdinand of Bohemia was Catholic and his country was very Protestant. He inherited the Emperor role for the Holy Roman Empire and soon the people of Bohemia elected Frederick, a Calvinist. Ferdinand asked for help from the Duke of Bavaria and he beat out Frederick in 1622. Many people got involved for many reasons. Fredirick needed a new army because the Bavarian Duke wouldn't support him for fear of Hapsburg. He turned to Albrecht von Wallenstein, who promised an army. He raised an army of 125,000. The Hapsbuurg came up with the Edict of Restitution of 1629. This outlawed Calvinism. Then the Swiss King, Gustavus Adolphus, backed by the French, entered the war for land and to protect protestant rights. Adolphus and Wallenstein were both killed and Swedes fought the Austrian Hapsburgs. By the end of the war, there were 8million less people in the Empire. The Peace of Westphalia. This solved almost all of the previous problems.
#88-Edict of Restitution
The Hapsbuurg came up with the Edict of Restitution of 1629. This outlawed Calvinism. Then the Swiss King, Gustavus Adolphus, backed by the French, entered the war for land and to protect protestant rights. Adolphus and Wallenstein were both killed and Swedes fought the Austrian Hapsburgs
#89- Gustavus Aldophus
Then the Swiss King, Gustavus Adolphus, backed by the French, entered the war for land and to protect protestant rights. Adolphus and Wallenstein were both killed and Swedes fought the Austrian Hapsburgs.
#90- Peace of Westphalia
This marked the end of the war and it solved some of the problems that caused the Thirty Years War.
#91- Cahterine de Medici
The French Wars of Religion (1562-1598) revealed that power in France was very shaky. Aristocracy and Monarchy battled and Religious conflicts rose to the surface becasue of the Calvinists or Huguenots and the death of henry II in 1559. He was succeded by three sons, but they were all ruled by their mother, Catherine of Medici.
#92- St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre
Henry of Navarre, a Caholic married a royal Calvinist and he converted. People gathered for the wedding in Paris and Cahterine of Medicic encouraged her sons to start the St. Bartholomews Day Massacre. Many people died and more Calvinists died because of organized attacks. Henry of Navarre became the heir and he began the Bourbon Dynasty that ruled France until the French Revolution.
#93- Henry IV (Navarre)
Henry of Navarre, a Caholic married a royal Calvinist and he converted. People gathered for the wedding in Paris and Cahterine of Medicic encouraged her sons to start the St. Bartholomews Day Massacre. Many people died and more Calvinists died because of organized attacks. Henry of Navarre became the heir and he began the Bourbon Dynasty that ruled France until the French Revolution.
#94- Edict of Nantes
Henry, although converted to Catholicism, did not forget the Heugenots. He passed the Edict of Nantes, giving them free right to worship and develop settlements that they could fortify and protect.
#95- Louis XIII
Following Henry IV death, the thirteen-year-old Louis XII took over and granted Cardinal Richelieu to be his Chief minister. France was vulnerable to an aristocratic takeover but Cardinal Richileu was a strong minister.
#96- Cardinal Richileu
Cardinal Richelieu defeated the Heguenots and brought France into the thirty years war on the side of the protestants so he could fight the Spanish Hapsburgs.
#97- Louis XIV
In 1643 Louis XIII died and the five-year-old Louis XIV took the throne, appointing Cardinal Mazarin to be the regent during his childhood. Mazarin wasn't very good and the French people rebelled. They killed Mazarin and made Louis flee the city. Louis, trying to deal with the angry aristocracy, said the monarchy had divine rights appointed by God. Louis built the castle of Versailles and it was huge. This distracted the aristocracy. He ignored the Aristocracy and took Lean-Baptist Colbert as his minister. He also developed Mercantilism to boost the economy. France now relied on the colonies for economy and their empire over seas grew . Colbert made New France which is now Quebec. He expelled over 200,000 Heguenots from France to England and the Netherlands. He took away their civil rights. Louis tried to expand borders and did for a while but then was driven back.
#98- Cardinal Mazarin
Louis XIV appointed Cardinal Mazarin to be the regent during his childhood. Mazarin wasn't very good and the French people rebelled. They killed Mazarin and made Louis flee the city.
#99- Fronde
Since Mazarin was weak France had to deal with a series of rebellions known as the Fronde between 1649 and 1652. These events scarred the young Louis and he even had to flee Paris at one point. Then, during this time, Mazarin was killed.
#100- divine rights of kings
Louis now had to grapple with an angry French aristocracy because they didn't like the powers of the monarchy. One way he did this was by saying the kings had divine rights bestowed upon them by God. Louis's chief political philosopher, Bishop Bossuet, said that since God appointed the king, only God could judge his action not parliamentary bodies or angry noble. Louis believed that no one, in or out of France, could question his sovereinty.
#101- Versailles
Louis built the palace of Versailles to distract the aristocracy form their anger. This palace was a third of a mile long with 1400 fountains. Eventually, 10,000 nobles and political officials lived there. Even though the cost to mantain Versailles was a lot, Louis thought it was worth it because it distracted the aristocracy and those who didn't live in Versailles, liked being exempt from the taxes.
#102- Jean Baptist Colbert
Louis ignored the warnings of the Aristocracy and took Jean-Baptist Colbert as his minister. Colbert made New France which is now Quebec inthe New World. Colbert wanted to diminish the power of the Dutch so he made the French East India treding company to rival the Dutch. it only had little success.
#103- Mercantilism
Mercantilism was the system introduced by Colbert. Colbert wanted to expand the gold stash of France. To do this he wanted to export goods to other countries in exchange for gold. He made factories to produce porcelains and textiles and other luxury items.
#104- French East India Company
Colbert wanted to diminish the power of the Dutch so he made the French East India treding company to rival the Dutch. it only had little success.
#105- Revocation of the Edict of Nantes
Louis wanted to unify France religiously as a means of enhancing royal absolutism. Louis decided the time had come to eradicate Calvinism in France and in 1685 he revoked the Edict of Nantes. He demolished Heugenot churches and schools and gave them no civil rights. Over 200,000 were exiled to England or the Netherlands. The Huegenots were a huge part of the French economic system adnd when they were exiled, it helped two countries that Louis was at war with. This meant less to him than his goal of which he thought God would like: the elimination of heresay in France.
#106- Wars of the Roses
England went through the same battle as France, but Parlaiment became more powerful. In the Wars of the Roses, York and Lacester fought for control over the monarchy, and Henry Tudor, part of the Lancester family, succeeded after defeating Richard III.
#107- Tudor Dynasty and Bosworth Field
Henry had defeated Richard at the Battle of Bosworth field. this restored the Tudor dynasty to the throne.
#108- Henry VII
In the Wars of the Roses, York and Lacester fought for control over the monarchy, and Henry Tudor, part of the Lancester family, succeeded after defeating Richard III. Henry VIII became king and restored power to the monarchy. He also broke form the church and made the Church of England.
#109- Elizabeth I
Queen Elizabeth used marraige as a tool to gain allies when she needed them because she always remained single. because Mary, the Queen of the Scots and the heir to Elizabeth's throne, was plotting against England so Elizabeth named Mary's son as her heir and had Mary executed. Spain didn't like the protestant England so they launched their great Spanish Armada, but Elizabeth defeated it, ensuring England's freedom.
#110- Mary Queen of Scots
Mary was the heir to the throne of England after Elizabeth. Elizabeth always thought Mary was plotting against her and she was. She was plotting with the Spainard Phillip II. Now Elixabeth decided to settle relationships with the Scots in the treaty of Berwick. She named Mary's son, James, as her heir. In 1587, Elizabeth took a step she didn't want to take and ordered the execution of Mary.
#111- James VI of Scotland, James I of England
In 1603, King James VI succeeded Elizabeth. James wanted divine rule. James had to ask the two houses of Parlaiment, The House of Commons and The House of Lords, for money. Elizabeth's religious plan failed to satisfy Calvinists, known as Pritans who stirred up trouble during the Stuart period.
#112- English Renaissance (Time of Shakespeare)
As Elizabeth grew older her political power began to diminish and people looked to the future. The stability she had created in England allowed for the English Renaissance to start. This was the time of writers such as Shakespeare, Christopher Marlowe, Bn Johnson, and Edmund Senser.
#113- Stuart Age and Puritans
Elizabeth's religious plan failed to satisfy Calvinists, known as Pritans who stirred up trouble during the Stuart period.
#114- Charles I
James's son, Charles I liked the Arminian branch of the Anglican church, and the Calvinists didn't like the Arminians because they refused to say the Catholics weren't Christain. Charles focus was on the war with Spain so he forced parlaiment to give him loans and they created the petition of rights to say that he couldn't do certain things without permission. Charles chief minister, the Duke of Buckingham, was murdered and CHarles blamed it on the House of Commons, and especially John Eliot. Eliot proposed three resolutions to stop this fighting between Parlaiment and the King. The King ordered the Speaker of the House to dissolve parlaiment and he did. For the nest 11 years the Personal Rule of Charles was the law of the Land. Charles was doing well until he tried to force the Scots to recognize the Church of England and read the Book of Common Prayer. Charles summoned the Short Parlaiment to see if they would fund his war against the Scots. They didn't and he lost to the Scots, who invaded and made him pay them money or sign a treaty. To pay them he summone the Long Parlaiment who began to diminish his power. They abolished his Perogative Courts, making him eaker. Parlaiment supported the Grand Remonstrance which limited the Kings power. Charles had to flee and this marked the beginning of the English Revolution.
#115- Archbishop Laud
Charles granted the Arminian Bichop named
#116- tonnage and poundage
The relationship between Charles and parlaiment worsened when parlaiment only granted him tonnage and poundage for a year instead of for the life of the monarch like had been custom since the fifeteen hundreds.
#117- Petition of Rights
Charles' focus was on the war with Spain so he forced parlaiment to give him loans but they didn't want to. They created the petition of rights to say that he couldn't do certain things without permission.
#118- Ship Money
Charles wanted to dissolve parlaiment. the main problem was how to raise money. He did this by extending the collection of ship money which was money that coastal cities had to raisefor naval defense during an emergency. In 1634, Charles called for a time of emergency, even though England was at peace. Two years later he extended this tax to inland cities who had never before paid ship money. This was such an effective way of raising money that the king would never have to call parliament again.
#119- Short and Long Parliaments
Charles was doing well until he tried to force the Scots to recognize the Church of England and read the Book of Common Prayer. Charles summoned the Short Parlaiment to see if they would fund his war against the Scots. They didn't and he lost to the Scots, who invaded and made him pay them money or sign a treaty. To pay them he summone the Long Parlaiment who began to diminish his power. They abolished his Perogative Courts, making him weaker.
#120- Grand Remonstrance
Parlaiment supported the Grand Remonstrance which presented 204 parlaimentary complaints from the past decade, thus limiting the Kings power. Charles had to flee and this marked the beginning of the English Revolution.
#121- Oliver Cromwell
People like Oliver Cromwell took over the old aristocratic leaders and he created the New Model Army. He defeated the King and executed him. England was a Republic from 1649 to 1660 called The Commonwealth but it was essentially a dictatorship ruled by Cromwell. He had to deal with groups like the Levellers and Diggers who wanted a complete overhaul of English Society. Eventually, because of parlaiment struggles, Cromwell divided England into 12 military divisions ruled by a general. Cormwell died and the people wanted the Stuarts to rule again so Charles II took the throne.
#122- Levellers and Diggers
Cromwell had to deal with radical parts of his army like the levellers and Diggers who had radical religious beliefs and a want for complete overhaul of English Society. They preached beliefs such as all men should be free to vote for the House of Commons, not just the land owners. Cromwell put down these rebels in 1649.
#123- Charles II
Finally, when Cromwell died in 1660, the English people wanted the Stuarts to take the throne again, so Charles the II succeeded Cromwell. The same problems that faced Charles's father now faced Charles. These issues weren't resolved during Charles's rule, but they faced his younger brother, James II, who succeeded him.
#124- James II
James II who was Catholic. James demanded the repeal of the Test Act which barred Catholics from parliamentry or military high social status. James issued the Decleration of Indulgence which gave religious freedom. This made religious peace but one religious group invited Willian the Statholder of the Netherlands to invade.
#125- Test Act
The Test Act banned all Catholics from holding military and Parliamentry positions. When James took the throne he forced Parliament to repeal it because he was Catholic.
#126- Glorious Revolution: William and Mary
When James had a son that was to be Ctatholic and heir to the throne, the Protestants united and
#127- Bill of Rights
The Bill of Rights forbade the use of royal perogative rights. The power to chagne laws was declared illegal . Armies could not be raised without parlaimentary consent. Elections to parlaiment were to be free of royal interference. The monarchs also had to swear to uphold the protestant faith and it was declared that the monarchy couls not pass into the hands of the Catholics.
#128- Act of Toleration
The Act of Toleration was a compromise bill. To get non-con-formists (Protestants who were not members of the Church of England) support int eh crucial months of 1688, Whigs and Tories had promised them that an act of topleration would be granted when William became king. The non-conformists could have acieved liberty of worship from James II's act of toleration, but an act from popular from a popular protestantmonarch would prove to be a better safeguard tot heir liberties. The Act of Toleration granted the right of public worship to Protestant non-conformists but was not extended ti Unitarians or to Catholics(thise two groups were also left alone, although legally they had no right to assempland pray). The Test act remained, which meatn non-conformists, Jews, and Catholics could not sit in parliament, until the law was changed in the nineteenth century.
#129- Act of Settlement
The Act of Settlement was passed to prevent the Catholic Stuart line from occupying th English throne. In 1714, when Queen Anne, the second Protestant daughter of James II, died childless, the throne passed to George I, the Elector of Hanover. a Prtoestant prince and a distantkinsman of the stuarts.
#130- Act of Union
the Act of Union marked the political unification of England and Scotland, forming the entity known as Great Britain. This union was by no means a love match and, in fact, occured because relations between the two previously independent states were so bad that on his death bed, William III urged that the union take place to forestall Scotland form going to war with England as an ally of France. As part of the agreement, Scotland gave up it'd parliament, but was allowed to mantain the state-sponsored Presbyterian Church and it's Roman-based legal system.
#131- Dutch Dominance and Bank of Amsterdam
Spain was not the economic power partly becasue of the Netherlands. Spain took over Portugal and gained resources to rival the Duth in Asia. Amsterdam replaced the Spanish held Antwerp as the center of commerce. The Bank of Amsterdam issued it's own currency. In 1602, the Dutch East India Trading Company emerged and boosted the economy, but the price of spices went down and the Dutch were slowly replaced by the English.
#132- Franz Hals, Jan Vermeer, Remrandt
The Dutch artists didn't paint for the Churches, but for wealthy people and landscaped were a favorite. The prices reached high. The art market didn't just flourish as shown by the career of Franz Hals. Jan Vermeer became famous for his paintings of common life. The greatest genius of the age was Rembandt Van Rijn. He was a very psychological painter.