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33 Cards in this Set

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#19-The Potugese and Spanish Empires
The Portugese had always looked to the sea and far off lands for wealth. They conquered some port cities in Africa and eventually they tried to find a way around Africa to India. Bartholomew Dias sailed around the Cape of Good Hope in 1487 and in 1498, Vasco da Gama reached the coast of India, defeating the Arab Fleets that patrolled the Indian Ocean. Since the Portugese controlled the African route to India, the Spanish tried an Atlantic route. Christopher Columbus set sell and after 33 days, he landed at the Bahamas. He thought they were in India so he called the people Indians and said they were friendly and easy to enslave. Ferdinand Magellan set out to circumnavigate the globe in 1519. He died in the Phillipines but his ship did make it all the way around, therefore proving that another continent existed. In 1519, Hernan Cortez landed in Mexico with a force of 600 men, but he soon gained allies in his war aginst the Aztecs. The Aztecs thought the Spainards were gods and they gave them gifts, which prompted the Spainards to want more and to eventually take over the Aztec Empire, calling it New Spain. Francisco Pizarro took over the Inca Empire and he eventually killed them through disease and his control over their leader. The Spanish began to set up plantations, enslaving the native Americans, and bringing over Africans.
#20- The Development of Monarchical States
Prior to the 16th-century , the Kings did not have absolute power. Then, when city-states begane to dominate places like Italy, the Kings were deemed absolute Power. In France the idea of monarchical absolute power rule by the reign of Louis XIV, but this paved the way for the French Revolution. In England, the Stuart Monarchs, who ruled for most of the 17th century wanted to adopt this idea of absolut power, but parlaiment stood in the way. After a Century of revolutions, Parlaiment gained power over the Monarchs.
#21- Italy
Italy stayed away from the supreme ruler idea, but Kingdoms such as France and England wanted to rule these small states such as Milan and Naples. To avoid this, they signed the Treaty of Lodi(1455) and they united. Together, Kings could not challenge them. But in 1490 when Ludovico il Moro became despot of Milan, he let Charles VIII enter amdn take over. His forces crossed into Florence, who had recently expelled the Medici rulers for a Dominican preacher, thus ending their part in the Italian Renaissance. by 1498, ludovico il Moro realized his wrong and he joined the Italian side to try and repel the French. The Italian city states would never be the same and Italy became the battleground of power for France and Spain. Niccolo Machiavelli wrote in his book: The Prince to the Medici family, who had taken over his government, that they needed someone who would ruthlessly overthrow thw foreigners.
#22- Spain
in the 15th century, Spain was united after being split into several kingdoms. The unification was a result of the Marriage of Ferdinand, the King of Aragon, and Isabella, the queen of Castille. They joined forces and conquered he Islamic country states in the south of Spain. They tried to make Spaina totally Catholic Country. Through a series of marriages, Isabella and Ferdinand's grandson became the King of and empire that dominated Europe. He had the best foot soldiers in Europe and was very wealthy. He created the Holy Roman Empire and divided it between his son and his brother, his brother getting the worser east and his son getting Spain and the better west. Philip, the son, struggled to maintain control over the North were Calvinism was spreading. He put down a revolt in the Netherlands, therefore making the people rebel. In an attempt to restore Spain's former control, He launched the Spanish Armada at England who had been aiding the rebels in the Netherlands and the North. The Armada was defeated. This forced Spain to become an independent state and release it's hold on the other countries. This was a golden age for spain where great wirters came forth like Cervantes who wrote the Don Quixote which tells of Spain's chivalvry. The greek born El Greco was a great Spanish painter who depicted Spain as having it all.
#23- Ecoomic Expansion and Population Growth
The key development was the growth in population. man power was still very important so the economy boomed. The prices on things also went up. this was known as the Price Revolution. Historians are trying to connect this to tensions at the time, both political and religious.
#24- Rural Life and the Emergence of Economic Classes
BEcause of the Price Revolution, a new social class, called the Gentry emerged. They were the wealthy class below the aristocracy and they were huge landowners. They played a huge role in the fight of Parlaiment against the Monarchy. They bought land that was for sheep. In book 1 of Utopia, Sir Thomas More refers to this as sheep devouring men. This forced farmers to become beggars and the rural poverty peeked. The cities pop. density also went way up in Western Europe, but in Eastern Europe it was well down.
#25- Farm Life
For most of Europe, life centered on the small villages. Houses were basic and you never traveled too far. They were barely getting by with the little resources they had. They were still farming and barely making it by into the 1800s, but scientific methods took over. The peasant farmers owned small plots of land and they shared grazing grounds with each other.
#26- Life in the Cities and Towns
There wasn't much rural density, but they did have a better life, with more poverty. More dynamically civilized. Cloth production increased because of the organization of Capitalist entrepeneurs. The guild were going out of business because of this new method, so giuildmasters were becoming rare and that dream was fading, which made them mad.
#27- Family Life and Family Structure/Heirarchy
Average family had three or four children. Low child numbers resulted from people getting married aroun 25 and 27. marriage was important because it involved transfer of property. Weddings were community celebrations because the couple were now ture citizens.
#28- The Role of Men in the Family
The father served as a reflection of the larger heirarchical of early modern Society. In wealthier families they were the guardiens of the money and made sure it was inherited by the older son and the younger sons were steered toward careers.
#29- The Role of Women
The only claim that they had on their parental estate was the dowry they recieved upon marraige. They could chose who that went to on death but their husbands controlled it during their life.
#30- The Family as Economic Unit
Families were an Economic unit and the jobs were decided by both age and gender. Men had to maintain their families reputation. Women were maids and childreares. Wealthier women had more children, whereas poorer women had less.
#31- How the Protestant Reformation Changed Life
The household became the center of Christain life, instead of the church. The father was like the priest and the women were more likely to marry because of the convents going away. Also, people were gettin divorced now.
#32-The Holy Roman Empire
This was a large state in central Europe that dated back to 962. This was the most powerful state in the Eleventh century, but it gradually weakened because of disputes with the papacy. The Golden Bull said that German princes should chose the Emperor not the hereditary rights. Over the years it broke up but Charles V tried to unify it again and the Lutherans stood in his way. The Peace of Augsburg siginified the end of religious wars in 1555 and the princes decided the religion for their state. But this didn't include Calvinism and that created conflicts. The thirty yers war decided if Charles V dream would become reality.
#33- The Thirty Year War (1618-1648)
King Ferdinand of Bohemia was Catholic and his country was very Protestant. He inherited the Emperor role for the Holy Roman Empire and soon the people of Bohemia elected Frederick, a Calvinist. Ferdinand asked for help from the Duke of Bavaria and he beat out Frederick in 1622. Many people got involved for many reasons. Fredirick needed a new army because the Bavarian Duke wouldn't support him for fear of Hapsburg. He turned to Albrecht von Wallenstein, who promised an army. He raised an army of 125,000. The Hapsbuurg came up with the Edict of Restitution of 1629. This outlawed Calvinism. Then the Swiss King, Gustavus Adolphus, backed by the French, entered the war for land and to protect protestant rights. Adolphus and Wallenstein were both killed and Swedes fought the Austrian Hapsburgs. By the end of the war, there were 8million less people in the Empire. The Peace of Westphalia. This solved almost all of the previous problems.
#34- France
The French Wars of Religion (1562-1598) revealed that power in France was very shaky. Aristocracy and Monarchy battled and Religious conflicts rose to the surface becasue of the Calvinists or Huguenots and the death of henry II in 1559. He was succeded by three sons, but they were all ruled by their mother, Catherine of Medici. Three families rose to aristocracy power behind the scenes. The Guises were turned toward a militant form of Catholicism and the other two, the Montmorency and the Bourbons, became Calvinists. When the Duke of Guises attacked Calvinists, they retaliated and the Duke and the PRince of Conde were killed over the next ten years. Henry of Navarre, a Caholic married a royal Calvinist and he converted. People gathered for the wedding in Paris and Cahterine of Medicic encouraged her sons to start the St. Bartholomews Day Massacre. Many people died and more Calvinists died because of organized attacks. Henry of Navarre became the heir and he began the Bourbon Dynasty that ruled France until the French Revolution.
#35- Royal Absolution
Following Henry IV death, the thirteen-year-old Louis XII took over and granted Cardinal Richelieu to be his Chief minister. Richelieu defeated the Heguenots and brought France into the thirty years war on the side of the protestants so he could fight the Spanish Hapsburgs. In 1643 Louis XIII died and the five-year-old Louis XIV took the throne, appointing Cardinal Mazarin to be the regent during his childhood. Mazarin wasn't very good and the French people rebelled. They killed Mazarin and made Louis flee the city. Louis, trying to deal with the angry aristocracy, said the monarchy had divine rights appointed by God. Louis built the castle of Versailles and it was huge. This distracted the aristocracy. He ignored the Aristocracy and took Lean-Baptist Colbert as his minister. He also developed Mercantilism to boost the economy. France now relied on the colonies for economy and their empire over seas grew . Colbert made New France which is now Quebec. He expelled over 200,000 Heguenots from France to England and the Netherlands. He took away their civil rights. Louis tried to expand borders and did for a while but then was driven back.
#36- ENGLAND- The Tudors
England went through the same battle as France, but Parlaiment became more powerful. In the Wars of the Roses, York and Lacester fought for control over the monarchy, and Henry Tudor, part of the Lancester family, succeeded after defeating Richard III. Henry VIII became king and restored power to the monarychy. He also broke form the church and made the Church of England. Queen Elizabeth used marraige as a tool to gain allies when she needed them because she always remained single. because Mary, the Queen of the Scots and the heir to Elizabeth's throne, was plotting against England so Elizabeth named Mary's son as her heir and had Mary executed. Spain didn't like the protestant England so they launched their great Spanish Armada, but Elizabeth defeated it, ensuring England's freedom.
#37- The Stuarts
In 1603, King James VI succeeded Elizabeth. James wanted divine rule. James had to ask the two houses of Parlaiment, The House of Commons and The House of Lords, for money. Elizabeth's religious plan failed to satisfy Calvinists, known as Pritans who stirred up trouble during the Stuart period. James's son, Charles I liked the Arminian branch of the Anglican church, and the Calvinists didn't like the Arminians because they refused to say the Catholics weren't Christain. Charles focus was on the war with Spain so he forced parlaiment to give him loans and they created the petition of rights to say that he couldn't do certain things without permission. Charles chief minister, the Duke of Buckingham, was murdered and CHarles blamed it on the House of Commons, and especially John Eliot. Eliot proposed three resolutions to stop this fighting between Parlaiment and the King. The King ordered the Speaker of the House to dissolve parlaiment and he did. For the nest 11 years the Personal Rule of Charles was the law of the Land. Charles was doing well until he tried to force the Scots to recognize the Church of England and read the Book of Common Prayer. Charles summoned the Short Parlaiment to see if they would fund his war against the Scots. They didn't and he lost to the Scots, who invaded and made him pay them money or sign a treaty. To pay them he summone the Long Parlaiment who began to diminish his power. They abolished his Perogative Courts, making him eaker. Parlaiment supported the Grand Remonstrance which limited the Kings power. Charles had to flee and this marked the beginning of the English Revolution.
#38- The English Revolution
People like Oliver Cromwell took over the old aristocratic leaders and he created the New Model Army. He defeated the King and executed him. England was a Republic from 1649 to 1660 called The Commonwealth but it was essentially a dictatorship ruled by Cromwell. He had to deal with groups like the Levellers and Diggers who wanted a complete overhaul of English Society. Eventually, because of parlaiment struggles, Cromwell divided England into 12 military divisions ruled by a general. Cormwell died and the people wanted the Stuarts to rule again so Charles II took the throne. He was succeeded by James II who was Catholic. James demanded the repeal of the Test Act which barred Catholics from royalty. James issued the Decleration of Indulgence which gave religious freedom. This made religious peace but one religious group invited Willian the Statholder of the Netherlands to invade. It was a bloodless struggle known as the Glorious Revolution. William and his wife Mary took the throne and made a constitutional settlemen including these laws: The Bill of Rights, The Act of Toleration, The Mutiny Act, The Act of Settlement, and The Act of Union.
#39- THE NETHERLANDS- A Center of Commerce and Trade
Spain was not the economic power partly becasue of the Netherlands. Spain took over Portugal and gained resources to rival the Duth in Asia. Amsterdam replaced the Spanish held Antwerp as the center of commerce. The Bank of Amsterdam issued it's own currency. In 1602, the Dutch East India Trading Company emerged and boosted the economy, but the price of spices went down and the Dutch were slowly replaced by the English. The Netherlands stood out from Europe because of it's tolerant attitude towards religious minorities.
#40- Political Decentralization
The Dutch also stood out from the rest of Europ because of their political decentralization. There were 7 political entiies ruled by nobles. The most notable Noble was the House of Orange who led the rebellion against Spain. The male head of the family was called the stadholder, an office with a military function. When the struggle with Louis XIV's France broke out, the provincial estates declined in power and William of Nassau, the head of the Orange family, became very powerful, especially after he became king of England.
#41- A Golden Age of Art
The Dutch artists didn't paint for the Churches, but for wealthy people and landscaped were a favorite. The prices reached high. The art market didn't just flourish as shown by the career of Franz Hals. Jan Vermeer became famous for his paintings of common life. The greatest genius of the age was Rembandt Van Rijn. He was a very psychological oainter.
#70- Prussia and Austria
Frederick William wanted to build an army becasue of the borders around his country not havind natural protection. The nobles funded his army because he granted them control over the serfs. Frederick left his son, Frederick III, with a strong efficient army and possibly the best civil service in all of Europe. Frederick III decided to become King Frederick I. He was fascinated by the intellectuall flow from France and used these thoughts to better his Kingdom. He banned capital punishhment. In Austria, Maria Theresa, the empress, removed some of the hardships that had been placed on the serf population. Her son, Joseph II, granted free worship throughout his empire and was trying to establish a centralized government. When Austria and Prussia weren't involved in reformations, they were fighting each other. The roots of the War of the Austrian Succesion happened during the reign of the Holy Roman emperor Charles VI who forced the states to accept the Pragmatic Sanction, allowing the lands under his control to stay intact under one ruler. Charles's daughter, Maria Theresa came to the throne and Prussia gained control of the richest part of Austira. Maria was only able to stay on the throne with the help of the Hungarian nobility. This war engaged much of Europe with Prussia, Spain and France on one side against many other countries. Maria Theresa brought about the Diplomatic Revolution to try and stop Frederick from being a threat by making a treaty with France, Russia and Sweden to have Austria's lands. This greatly affected Prussia's power. prussia, funded by Great Britain, defeated a French and Austrian army in the Seven Years War, but then was wiped out by a massive Russain army. Luckily, the Russain ruler liked Frederick, so Frederick stayed ruler of a smaller Prussia.
#71- Russia
Russia didn't really have much interaction with Europe until the seventeenth century. After the reign of Ivan the Terrible, Russia entered the time of troubles until they elected a Tsar from the Romanov family, who ruled until 1917. Peter the Great turned Russia to the Western way. He increases Russian revenue using western methods and became an absolutists. He built the great city of St. Petersburg in 1703 to increase the ties between Russia and Europe. Peter built a great organized army and a navy and began expanding his borders, most notably taking over Sweden in the Great Northern War. One of Peter's successors, Catherine the Great, continued Peter's Western outlook and made laws based on Philosophes writings.
#72- Great Britain
Great Britain moved from a monarchy to a parlaiment by the seventeenth century and they became the foundation for a solid government. Also the development of the office of Prime Minister became noticable. The Chancellor of the Exchequer, Robert Walpole, started to mold the political system to his advantage because Geroge I and George II were negligent of Political development. Another development that shaped Parlaiment was the formation of two blocks: Tories and Whigs. Tories supported the King and the Church of England and the Whigs supported Religious Tolerance. When George III came to the throne he wanted to get rid of the parties. He granted his own Chief minister during his first ten years of ruling and that political strife made the American colonies restless. The the Chief Minister, George Grenville, passed the Stamp Act in the colonis to pay for the Seven Years War. By 1774 the Americans were very angry and they formed the firs Continental Congress and that stared a war that the Americans, backed by France and Spain, won. This rebellion by the Americans spurred on a reform in parlaiment. A real change had to wait because of the French Revolution.
#73- France
French absolutism was very weak and the Jansenists, who were similar to the Calvinists, were ordered to be banned by the papacy. Louis XV tried to put them down, but was blocked by various provincial parlements, or laws set sown by a group of nobles. Louis XV banned the parlements because they said that he couldn't reform the income for revenue after the Seven Years war. Louis XVI had to bring back the Parlements to please the noble and they changed the source of revenue, which led to the Revolution by 1789.
#74- Background to the Revolution
Louis XVI might have been a good constitutional monarch, but he was a bad absolutists monarch. The people din't like his wife Marie-Antoinette and she didn't like him. She was not liked by the people and she was ignorant of the people's problems. France wasn't bankrupt, but the monarchy was after all of the wars. The debts were huge. Louis tried to convince the nobilities to give up their tax free status, but he wasn't to convincing.
#75- The Calling of the Estates General and the Demand for a National Assembly
Louis got so desperate that he called an Assembaly of Notables and asked if they would support a new land tax. The nobilities said no and asked for the Estates General so that their power would not be tested. Louis called the Estates General in 1789 and the question of voting came up. The third estate thought they should be the First Estate and the common clergy men agreed with the Thrid Estate. Abbe Sieyes, a lower clergy man wrote that the Third Estate should have more power. At the beginning of the Estates General thousands of documents were presented to the king greiving for different changes and they never challenged monarchy, but they wanted to change the government policiy. On the first day of the Estates General the King angered the Third Estate so they held off going to the estate for weeks. Finnaly, when they did go, they demand that it be a national assembly, not a assembly based on medieval social status. The King tried to stop the Third Estate from meeting because of their revolutionary type ideas, so he barred off their meeting hall. They went and met at a tennis court, in what became known as the Tennis Court Oath, and they swore they wouldn't stop meeting until kingdom was on solid foundations. Finally on June 27, Louis XVI agreed to join all three estates.
#76- The Storming of the Balliste and the Great Fear
The people of Paris began to fear that Louis would violently force te National Assembly to break up, so they began to revolt and they claimed the Balliste and the weapons inside. Louis recognized the Commune of Paris, the new government. Louis also agreed to a National guard led by Marquis de Lafayette. the peasants were starting to get paranoid because of the poor harvest and the huge taxes. This came to be known as the Great Fear. This forced the nobles to give up their special rights and that made all of the people equal.
#77- The Constitutional Monarchy
In the Decleration of the Rights of Man and Citizen, the people called for a national government, not a monarchy. This Constitution said that only men have these rights, not women. Olympe de Gouges wrote The Rights of WOmen and said that women should be equal to men. On October 5, a mob of women went to Versailles and dragged the royal family to Paris where they could watch the king. To counteract the debt, the National Assembly confiscated Catholic Land and in the Civil Cinstitution of the Church, the Church becane a stately paid thing. In 1791 they nade a constitutional Monarchy. They set up a complex system of voting and the King still retained some powers. Teh National Assembly gave some new powers to the people and they gave more freedom.
#78- The End of the Monarchy
The Constitutional monarchy eventually collapsed because the King tried to flee and wasn't happy. The two most famous parties in the National assemblies were the Jacobins and the Girondins. The Girondins wanted to free the other states in Europe from absolutism so they declared war aginst Austria and Prussia. This sealed the fate of the rayl family. The early stages of the war didn't go well because of the lack of bread and political unrest. They were also fearful of the Prussian Commander,the Duke of Brunswick because he said that if they harmed the king, then he would destroy Paris. A series of rebellions led to the drawing of a new constitution. The French Army defeated the Prussian and Austrian Forces and in 1792, they became a Republic and the Royal family was place under arrest. louis XVI was killed in 1793.
#79- European Reactions to the French Revolutions
Some states tried to follow the example of France and the Prime minister of Great Britain, William Pitt the Younger, said that it would make theier relationship better. Edmund Burke, in his book Reflection on the Frenckh Revolution, said that eventually force would take over. The French Armies soon became threats to all of Europe.