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54 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
All of life's processes involve _____, the combining, exchanging, and breaking apart of the atoms and molecules of substances
chemical reactions
All matter is made up of _____
atoms
Something that is made up of just one kind of atom is called an _____
element
six most important elements to biologists are ...
hydrogen,
oxygen,
phosphorus,
nitrogen,
carbon,
sulfur
atoms of the same element with a different number of _____ are called _____
neutrons/mass number, isotopes
Because they have the same number of _____, isotopes have the _____
electrons, same chemical properties
all atoms want to be _____, that's why they form _____
stable, bonds
electrons move about the nucleus in _____ or _____
energy levels, electron clouds
The first energy level can hold _____ electrons, the second _____, and the third _____
2, 8, 18
when the outer level is _____, the atom is _____ and cannot _____ with other atoms
filled, stable, react
this is an atom with either a positive or a negative charge
ion
ionic bond can break up in _____
water
_____ forms when electron is tranferred
ionic bonds
when electrons are _____, covalent bond forms
shared
a _____ is the sharing or _____ of electrons between atoms
chemical reaction, tranfer
a _____ is used to describe how acidic or basic a solution is
pH scale
higher proportion of hydrogen ions (H+) is _____ and has a pH _____ 7 on the pH scale
acidic, below
higher concentration of hydroxide ions (OH-) is _____ and has a pH _____ than 7
basic, higher
the carbon atom has _____ elctrons
4 valence
the _____ atom is essential to life's chemicals b/c it can form _____ with itself and other elements making possible many different _____
carbon, covalent bonds, compounds
the most important factor in determining whether a reaction will occur is the _____
energy changes/flow of energy/activation
matter is anything that has _____
mass and volume
what determines the properties of an element?
the element's electrons
How is an ionic bond formed between two atoms?
An electrical force forms between oppositely charged ions.
all atoms of the same substance have the same _____
atomic number
the basic unit of matter is the _____
atom
all atoms of the same substance have the same _____
atomic number
any spontaneous chemical reaction _____
releases energy
in the compound NaCl, the sodium and chlorine are held together by _____
ionic bonds
ionic bonds are _____
the attraction between oppositely charged ions
the smallest particle of a covalently bonded compound is a _____
molecule
_____ is the resulting structure of covalent bonds
molecule
smallest unit of most compounds
molecule
h2O is a _____
formula
symbol is used _____
for only 1 element
ex: P, Na, etc.
formula is used for _____
molecule (2 covalently bonded atoms)
two or more _____ atoms are combined in _____ proportions in any _____
different, definite, compound
CO is a _____
compound
Cl is a _____
symbol
1H, 2H, 3H are _____
isotopes (same atomic number, differently mass number)
physical property
doesn't change identity
chemical property
how they mix together/bond
2H2O --> O2 + 2H2 is not a _____
spontaneous reaction
(possible when there is an electrical charge_
approximately _____ of the mass of an atom is in the _____
99.9%, nucleus
electrons compared to protons have _____ of mass
1/1836
the _____ and _____ of a compound are usually _____ from those of the elements from which it is formed
physical, chemical properties, different
stomach acid is _____,
oven cleaner is _____,
acidic, basic
_____ affect the reactions in _____ by changing the _____
enzymes, living cells, speed of the reaction (increase/decrease)
_____ affect chemical reactions by increasing the speed of _____
catalysts, hemical reactions
_____ have _____ nuclei and breakdown at a _____
radioactive isotopes, unstable, constant rate of time
how are isotopes identified?
by their mass numbers
what holds atoms in compounds together?
chemical bonds
_____ are the attractions between _____ regions of nearby _____
van der waals forces, oppositely charged molecules
when bond between atoms break, _____ is released
break, energy, released