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161 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Energy Level
a region around the nuclueus of an atom where electrons are most likely to be found. Only a certain # of electrons can be found in each energy level.
Neutron
an uncharged particle found in the nucleus of an atom.
Proton
a subatomic particle identical with the the nucleus of a hydrogen atom. Found with neutrons in all atomic nuclei, positive charge.
Electrons
a subatomic particle in an atom that is negatively charged and the occupies the energy levels of an atom. electrons are involved in chemical bonds.
Nucleus
the center core of an atom that contains protons and neutrons.
Element
substances that contain only one type of matter.
Atomic Mass
the average mass of all known isotopes of an element.
Symbol
something that stands for something else. ex: element symbol
Atomic Number
the # of protons that an atom contains.
Atom
the smallest particle of matter that can exist. it can exsist alone or with others.
Molocule
the smallest particle of a compound that retains the properties of the comppund
Compound
substances made up of 2 or more elements that cant be seperated by physical means.
Matter
anything that has mass and takes up space.
Brittleness
a measure of a materials tendancy to shatter upon impact
Elasticity
a measure of a solids ability to stretch and then return to its original shape and size.
Hardness
measures a materials resistance to scratching.
Malleability
a solids ability to be pounded into thin sheets.
Density
a property that describes the relationship between mass and volume.
Condensation
the process by which a substance in its gaseous state loses energy & enters its liquid state; a part of the water cycle.
Evaporation
the process by which a substance in its liquid state gains energy & enters its gaseous state; a part of the water cycle.
Menicus
water level in a graduated cylinder
Mass
a measure of the inertia of an object; the ammount of matter an object has.
Archimedes Principle
a principle that states the force exerted on an object in a liquid is = to the weight of the fluid displaced by the object.
Buoyancy
measure of the upward force a fluid exerts on an object.
Fluid
any thing in liquid state; a nonsolid matter
Viscosity
a mesure of a materials resistance to flow
Valence Electrons
the electrons in an atom that are involved in the formation of chemical bonds
Ions
an atom that has an electrical charge.
Electronegativity
the attraction an atom has for the shared pair of electrons in a chemical bond.
Covelent Bond
a type of chemical bond that is formed when atoms share electrons. This is also a bond between 2 metals
Hardness
measures a materials resistance to scratching.
Malleability
a solids ability to be pounded into thin sheets.
Density
a property that describes the relationship between mass and volume.
Condensation
the process by which a substance in its gaseous state loses energy & enters its liquid state; a part of the water cycle.
Evaporation
the process by which a substance in its liquid state gains energy & enters its gaseous state; a part of the water cycle.
Menicus
water level in a graduated cylinder
Mass
a measure of the inertia of an object; the ammount of matter an object has.
Archimedes Principle
a principle that states the force exerted on an object in a liquid is = to the weight of the fluid displaced by the object.
Buoyancy
measure of the upward force a fluid exerts on an object.
Fluid
any thing in liquid state; a nonsolid matter
Viscosity
a mesure of a materials resistance to flow
Valence Electrons
the electrons in an atom that are involved in the formation of chemical bonds
Ions
an atom that has an electrical charge.
Electronegativity
the attraction an atom has for the shared pair of electrons in a chemical bond.
Covelent Bond
a type of chemical bond that is formed when atoms share electrons. This is also a bond between 2 metals
Ionic Bond
a type of chemical bond between atoms that gained or lost electrons. this is also a bond between a metal and a nonmetal.
Metal Bond
a bond between 2 metals
Octet Rule
atoms form bonds by sharing or transfering them to complete their octet and become stable.
Binary Compounds
a covalent compound that exists of only 2 types of elements
Polyatomic Ions
ions that contain more than one type of atom
Molecular Formula
indicates the symbols for the # of atoms that each element contains in a compound
Emperical Formula
molecular formula reduced
Diatomic Molocules
a molocule that has only 2 atoms of the same element. HaveNoFearOfIceColdBeverages
Polymers
a large molocule that is composed of repeating smaller molocules called subunits or monomers.
Single Displacement
a reaction in which one element replaces a similar element on a compound
Double Displacement
a reaction in which two compounds exchange places to form 2 new elements
Decomposition Reaction
a reaction in which a single compound is broken down to produce 2 or more smaller compounds
Addition Reaction
reaction in which 2 or more elements form a compound
Combustion Reaction
a reaction where substances mix with oxygen
Physical Change
change in the physical properties of a substance
Chemical Change
a change that involves the breaking down and rearranging of bonds to make new substances
Law of Conservation of Mass
states that the total mass of the products in a reaction are equal to the total mass of reactants
Products
substances that are produced in a chemical reaction from reactants (right side of chemcical equation)
Reactants
a substance that enters into and is altered in the course of a chemical reaction
Limiting Reactant
the reactant that is used up first in a chemical reaction
Avogado's Number
the # of atoms in an atomic mass of an element, or # of molocules ib formula mass of a compound when masses are expressed in grams
Mole
one set of 6.02 x 10 to the 23rd power
Chemical Formula
a representation of a compound that includes the symbols an # of atoms in the compound
Formula Mass
determined by adding up the atomic mass units and all atoms of that element in a compound
Solvent
the component of a solution that dissolves the solute and is present in the greatest ammount
Solute
the substance in a solution in the smallest ammount and is dissolved by the solvent
Solution
a mixture of two or more substances that is homogenous at the molecular level
Tyndall Effect
a way of visually distinquishing colloids from solutions
Colloid
a type of mixture at which the particles are between 1.0 and 1,000 nanometers
Nanometer
a unit of measurement that is equal to one billionth of a meter
Chemical Change
a change that involves the breaking down and rearranging of bonds to make new substances
Law of Conservation of Mass
states that the total mass of the products in a reaction are equal to the total mass of reactants
Products
substances that are produced in a chemical reaction from reactants (right side of chemcical equation)
Reactants
a substance that enters into and is altered in the course of a chemical reaction
Limiting Reactant
the reactant that is used up first in a chemical reaction
Avogado's Number
the # of atoms in an atomic mass of an element, or # of molocules ib formula mass of a compound when masses are expressed in grams
Mole
one set of 6.02 x 10 to the 23rd power
Chemical Formula
a representation of a compound that includes the symbols an # of atoms in the compound
Formula Mass
determined by adding up the atomic mass units and all atoms of that element in a compound
Solvent
the component of a solution that dissolves the solute and is present in the greatest ammount
Solute
the substance in a solution in the smallest ammount and is dissolved by the solvent
Solution
a mixture of two or more substances that is homogenous at the molecular level
Tyndall Effect
a way of visually distinquishing colloids from solutions
Colloid
a type of mixture at which the particles are between 1.0 and 1,000 nanometers
Nanometer
a unit of measurement that is equal to one billionth of a meter
Alloy
solution of 2 or more metals
Equilibrium
the state of solutes in a solution dissolving and coming out at the same rate
Suspention
a type of mixture where particles are larger than 1,000 nanometers
Ionization
when an atom gives or takes ions are produced.
Saturated
the state of a mixture in which maximum ammount of solute has dissolved
Supersaturated
condition of a solution when more solute has dissolved than is possible at a given temp.
Dissociation
seperating a molocule into atoms and ions
Neutral
a solution that has a pH of 7 meaning that it has = numbers of H+ and OH-
Non-Electrolyte
chemicals that dont form ions into a solution
Acid
a chemical the contributes hydrogen ions to a solution
Base
a chemical that contributes hydroxide ions to a solution
Acid Precipitation
rain, snow, or fog that has a pH lower than 5.6
pH
the exact concentration of H+ ions and OH- ions in a solution
Electrolytes
chemicals that form ions and conduct current when dissolved in water
Alpha Particle
a partially charged particle emmitted from the nulceus of an atom during radioactive decay
Half-Life
the length of time that it takes for half an ammount of radioactive substance to decay
Gamma Rays
a photon emmitted spontaniously by a radioactive substance
Isotopes
forms of the same elements with different # of neutrons and mass #
Beta Particles
a negetivily charged particle (electron) emitted from the nucleus of an atom during radioactive decay
Radiation
a term used to describe the particles of energy that are emitted from a radioactive substances
Fission
a nuclear reaction that involves the splitting of molocules
Fusion
a nuclear reaction that involves the fusing of nuclei from 2 atoms to make a different atom
What 2 groups can all matter be classified into?
Mixtures and substances
What tools can be used to find volume?
mesuring cup, graduated cylinder, and a beaker.
What weighs/ masses to be approx. one gram?
paper clip, bean
Solids retain their shape and size if kept at a constant pressure. Do liquids? Do gasses?
Liquids- retain volume, not shape
Gases- no volume, no shape
Which states of matter is most commonly found in the universe?
plasma
A liquid changes rapidly into a gas at the liquid's __________ ___________
Boiling Point
What are some examples of physical properties?
an objects shape, size, or state
What are some signs that a chemical change has occured?
change in color, gas production, fizz
List the phases of water in order from slowest to fastest molocule movement
solids--->liquids--->gas
As you move to a higher elevation water would boil at a ______ temperature
Lower
During a phase change, the temperature
stays the same
Which weighs or masses to be more a kilogram of bricks, a kilogram of fethers, or both stay the same?
both are the same
What's the formula for denstiy?
D= m/v
If a density colum was built with molases, water, oil and glycerol what would be the order from bottom to top?
molasses,glycerol,water,oil
When poured into water, glycerol falls to the bottom? What can be said about this?
Glycerol is more dense than the water
A substance with high viscosity....
its eaiser to pour
A substance with low viscosity......
is harder to pour
A common isotope of carbon has a mass # of 13, the total # of subatomic particles in the necleus?
13
who did the gold foil experiment
Rutherford
What is the charge of a proton?
positive
Whats the charge of a neutron?
no charge
Whats the charge of an electron?
negitive
How many oxygen atoms are in one molecule of table sugar? c12h22o11
11
A spectrometer is used to analyze different light sources-if each light shows a different color-what can be said about light sources?
the light source absorbs different colors to give you different colors.
If the element is electicly stable-the # of electrons always equals
the # of protons
Why are noble gases nonreactive?
their outer energy levels are full
Elements on the periodic table are similar because
they have the same # of valence electrons
The name for the compound with the formula CuBr2 is
Copper (II) Bromide
Name the chemical formula for a compound that contains the aluminum ion and the hydroxide ion
Aluminium Hydroxide
AlOH3
What ions are in the compound CaCl2
protons,neutrons,and electrons
Name 3 things that a chemical formula can tell you.
name of the compound, oxidation #,element names.
Name the compound with the formula Cr2O3
Crominum (III) Oxide
Calculate the formula mass for nitric acid.
63 amu
When a chemical change occurs 3 things happen- what are they?
atoms rearranged, bonds broken, new substances are created
In a balenced equation, the total mass of products always equals..
the total mass of reactants
An instant cold pack gets very cold. This is an example of what type of reation?
endothermic
An instant hot pack gets very hot. This is what type of reaction
exothermic
The Tyndall Effect is used to determine what?
collids from true solutions
What are some types of solutions when water is the solvent?
Kool- aid, salt-water, tea.
One of the simplest ways to increase the dissolving rate of a spoonful of sugar in water is to..
stir it up
Timed-release medicine improves the delivery of medicine to the body by using..
different dissolving rates
Why is it a good idea to make vitamins chewable?
chewing increased the surface area
A solution reaches equilibrium when
the balance of solute molocules coming and going from a solution equals each other
Water is described as a polar molocule because.
it has 2 poles each with a different partial charge
Give 3 examples of common acids
lemon juice, vinegar, soda water
Give 3 examples of basic substances
baking soda, bar soap, and amonia
Describe the pH scale
a scale labeled 1-14. substances from 1-6 are acidic, 7 are neutal and 8-14 are basic
A neutral solution means
that the solution has a pH of 7 and equal #'s of H+ ions and OH- ions
What kind of reaction do nuclear power plants use to generate electricity?
fission chain reaction