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149 Cards in this Set

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MAJOR BEHAVIORAL OBSERVATION METHODS:
Narrative – info from running anecdotal records
Interval – time sampling techniques
Ratings Recording –uses
SOURCES OF ERROR ASSOCIATED WITH BEHAVIORAL ASSESSMENTS:
Observer or rater bias
Study percentage of agreement between the raters
Sample behavior more than once to increase reliability
OBSERVERS AFFECTED BY:
Halo effect, fatigue, personal biases
SOCIAL, EMOTIONAL ASSESSMENTS:
BASC-2, MMPI, APS, Conners (ADHD) and Beck Depression Inventory
PROJECTIVES USED TO:
Supplemental to battery of psychological tests (low psychometric reliability)
ADAPTIVE BEHAVIOR ASSESSMENTS:
ABAS, Vineland
MENTAL RETARDATION:
Scores on adaptive assessments and IQ tets should be 2 standard deviations below the mean (SS<70)
STEPS IN CONDUCTING AN FBA:
Determine antecedents, target behavior itself, consequence of the behavior (ABC)
WHEN ANALYZING A BEHAVIOR PAY ATTENTION TO:
Intensity, Frequency and Duration – Behavior must show significant negative impact on academic performance and/or social development to qualify for Sp Ed
2 MAIN FUNCTIONS OF BEHAVIOR:
Gain something positive (wanted) or escape something negative.
KEY REASONS FOR BEHAVIOR:
Attention, power/control, affiliation, and revenge
HOW TO WRITE AN INTERVENTION PLAN:
Include positive strategies and replacement behavior for the negative behavior in the plan
BELL CURVE:
68% of people fall in the normal curve (center); cognitive assessments use normal curve theory
FLUID INTELLIGENCE:
Ability to solve problems through reasoning (not on previously learned facts); aka nonverbal reasoning, immediate problem solving or simultaneous processing; ability to summarize and comprehend information
CRYSTALLIZED INTELLIGENCE:
Ability to solve problems by applying learned facts and language (verbal section of IQ tests)
CATELL AND HORNE:
Theorists behind crystallized and fluid intelligence
EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE:
Ability to be aware of one’s emotions, regulate one’s own emotions and accurately read the emotions of others; students with low emotional/social intelligence have undesirable life outcomes
LEARNING DISORDERS:
10-15% of population
AUTISM:
1 to 2500 to 10,000 with male to female ratio 4:1; behavior modification, shaping and direct hands on teaching with pictures are common interventions; also toys, increased structure, motor imitation and family participation
ADHD:
Inattentive and hyperactivity types (3-7 % of population)
DOWN SYNDROME:
impacts 1 of 800 people; caused by an extra chromosome – usually also have mental retardation, interventions associated with this include hands-on learning, tight structure in the classroom, visual communication systems; and social skills training
SLIC:
Significant Limited Intelligence Capacity; IQ at least 2 standard deviations below the mean, (<70) and adaptive skill measure scores also below 70
SIED:
Significant Identifiable Emotional Disability; disability of children that must be impacted in various settings (one of which is school); cannot be due to situational factors and interventions must have been attempted
SPEECH AND LANGUAGE DISABILITIES:
Difficulty with expressive and/or receptive language – must fall below the 9th percentile on a speech language assessment such as the CELF or Peabody tests
ESL:
English as a Second Language; do not fully understand the English language; NASP wants child instructed in both languages; full immersion instruction only within a child’s nature language is not supported
READINESS:
Denotes a student’s biological and physiological maturational level to enter school (usually kindergarten)
ADHD:
One of the most prevalent disorders in schools usually occurs with other problems (learning disability) – 3-7% of population; impacts boys more than girls with 3:1 ratio; traits include impulsivity, inability to attend, constant movement and lack of self-regulation
MENTAL RETARDATION:
Standard IQ score of 55-69 (mild); 40-54 (moderate); 40 or below (severe)
TIC DISORDERS:
Tourettes; genetic component; use relaxation, social skills training, medication and cognitive-behavior interventions ; involuntary twitching, facial expressions or verbal outbursts (sometimes with ADHD)
AUTHENTIC ASSESSMENTS:
Dynamic assessments require student to perform a typical classroom task (reading); sometimes take place in actual environment where behavior is seen.
PERSON CENTERED COUNSELING:
Strives for congruence between the real and ideal self; believes that people naturally seek growth toward personal and universal goals (Maslow, Adler, Rogers)
EXISTENTIAL COUNSELING:
Find unique meaning and purpose in the world; increases self-awareness and stresses importance of choice; focus on present and future; (Frankl)
ADLERIAN THEORY:
Motivated by social interests and striving toward goals; goals drive behavior; emphasis on taking the person’s perspective and altering it to yield productive results
PSYCHOANALYTIC COUNSELING:
Based on early life experience; unconscious motives and conflicts drive behavior; goal is to make one aware of the unconscious desires through interpretations
SYSTEMS THERAPY:
Individuals are part of a larger living system ; treats the family and other systems in therapeutic change process; aka ecological approach and is NASP endorsed perspective
COGNITIVE BEHAVIORAL THERAPY (CBT):
Intervention approach and endorsed as best practice; central principles place emphasis on person’s belief system as cause of problems; internal dialogue key role in behaviors along with faulty assumptions and misconceptions; modified through role play or other active interventions
RATIONAL EMOTIVE COUNSELING:
Emphasis confrontational techniques regarding irrational beliefs (Ellis)
GESTALT THERAPY:
Focuses on the wholeness and integration of thoughts, feelings and actions; key to move a person from external locus of control to an internal locus of control
REALITY THERAPY:
Centers on choices people make and how they are working for them; objective is to have clients take charge of their own life by examining the choices they make (Glasser)
SOCIAL SKILLS TRAINING:
Involves 4 processes: Instruction, rehearsing, providing feedback/reinforcement and reducing negative behaviors; modeling and role-playing are important techniques in this intervention
BEHAVIOR MODIFICATION:
Response cost effective method – the removal of an earned reward that reduces or modifies negative behaviors (making a mess in the cafeteria must give up recess to clean up the mess); overcorrection is when he is required to clean up others mess as well as his own (aka RESTORATIVE JUSTICE)
SELF-DIALOGUE:
Cognitive approach to changing behavior – vital to understand what the student is saying to himself before, during, and after an undesirable act; changing self talk can modify certain behaviors
FBA:
Antecedent, Behavior and Consequence maintaining behavior; What is the payoff for the behavior?
PREMACK PRINCIPLE:
To modify behavior; emphasizes that a desirable task can reinforce a lower level task (ex. Watch TV after doing the dishes)
GENERAL COUNSELING FORMAT:
Define the problem; brainstorm ideas to address the problem; implement the plan or modification; evaluate the intervention’s effectiveness
KEY PIECES FOR BEHAVIORAL INTERVENTIONS:
Provide supportive feedback; give choices to the student; supply positive reinforcement
STANDARD DEVIATION:
Differences and deviations from the average; +/- one standard deviation = 68% of the population
MOST COGNITIVE ASSESSMENTS HAVE A MEAN OF:
100 w/ Standard deviation of 15
STANDARD SCORE OF 100 is:
Average
IPSATIVE SCORES:
Examines a pattern of scores within an individual to determine individual strengths and weaknesses ; compares scores to the test taker instead of to a group
CRITERION MEASUREMENT:
Not based on the Bell Curve but instead is based on a specific criteria or content to be mastered; used in self-paced studies
STANDARD ERROR OF MEASUREMENT:
Used to develop confidence brackets on a standardized test; represents the level of error expected in measuring a trait (and confidence that a persons’ true score will fall within a range of scores)
Z SCORES:
Mean of 0 and a SD of 1
T SCORES:
Mean of 50 and SD of 10 (don’t confuse with standard scores)
PERCENTILE:
Percentage of people who score at or below the percentile score; percentiles use percentages but are not percentages themselves
PREFERENCE FOR STANDARD SCORES BECAUSE:
They are equal interval scores; other types of scores are not equal in their measurements of central tendency
EFFECT SIZE:
Statistic that illustrates the overall effect of an intervention
STANDARDIZED TESTING:
Follows strict administration, scoring and interpretation rules; have verifiable statistical properties associated with the test’s validity and reliability; shows what is Normal
RELIABILITY:
Vital for standardized tests; the ability to produce similar results over time; IQ results remain stable across time
VALIDITY:
Tests ability to measure what it purports to measure
VALIDITY TYPES – CONVERGENT
when a new test is correlated with an established test
TYPE I ERROR:
When you say something is true but it is not (rejecting the null hypothesis)
TYPE II ERROR:
When you state something is false, but it is really true (accepting a null hypothesis)
CORRELATION:
Association or relationship between variables (ex. Smoking and lung cancer but does not mean that one variable causes another); correlations above .70 are said to be strong and desirable; useful in predicting results;
META ANALYSIS:
Examination of several studies to ascertain the validity of a construct or hypothesis
RAISE THE POWER OF AN EXPERIMENT:
Increase the number and types of participants; makes results more reliable and valid
LEARNED HELPLESSNESS:
Sense of hopelessness and depression that develops from a pattern of failures (Seligman)
ATTRIBUTION THEORY:
How people attribute success or failure to internal or external forces (Dweck)
EXTERNAL LOCUS OF CONTROL:
Belief that events happen to you, success is attributed to luck
INTERNAL LOCUS OF CONTROL:
Belief that one’s effort and skills control one’s future
BEHAVIORISM:
Focuses on the environment reinforcing behaviors; empirically driven and focus on strict data collection
SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY:
States that people learn not only through reinforcers and punishers (i.e. Skinner) but also through observation; (Bandura) children can act aggressively by watching violent behavior of others - his term is modeling
KOLHBERG'S STAGES OF MORAL DEVELOPMENT:
1 - Pre-conventional is when child's behavior is motivated by fear of punishment; 2 - conventional stage focuses on conformity of social norms and desire to avoid disappointing others; 3 - post conventional stage centers on high ethics and moral principles of conscience
PIAGET'S THEORIES:
Progressive adaptation to the environment through assimilation and accommodation; infants are predisposed to acquire information by interacting with their environment
PIAGET’S ACCOMMODATION:
Modification of mental schemes in response to the demands of the environment
PIAGET’S ASSIMILATION:
Using existing ideas in new situations – an attempt to generalize what is learned
PIAGET’S STAGES:
Sensorimotor; Preoperational;
Concrete stage; Formal Operations
Sensorimotor
0-2 object permanence, attachment, little language, and lives in the world of here and now
Pre-operational
2-7 Covers K-1 grades – egocentric reason dominated by perception, intuitive rather than logical reasoning, does not fully understand that a short wide glass can hold more water than a tall thin glass (conservation)
Concrete stage
7-11 2-6, understands conservation, understands inferential thinking, quantitative reasoning, develops reversibility of thought (2 X 5 = 10 is the same as 5 X 2 = 10)
Formal Operations
12 to adult middle to high school; can deal with hypothetical situations and generalize learning; more adult-like in reasoning
ERICKSON’S PSYCHOSOCIAL STAGES (important stages only):
Trust v. Mistrust
Autonomy v. Shame and Doubt
Initiative v. Guilt
Industry v. Inferiority
Erickson's TRUST V. MISTRUST
0-18 MO; attachment to caregiver is important – development of trust with caregiver to explore the world; requires warm, loving and attention to basic needs
Erickson's Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt
18 mo to 3 yrs - develop sense of confidence in their abilities to explore and do things for themselves; begin to understand that they can control their behavior
Erickson's Initiative v. Guilt
3-5 yrs - move from simple self control to taking the initiative in play and in various tasks; imaginary play and choosing activities are illustrated at this stage
Industry vs. Inferiority
6-12 years; develop a sense of identity; sense of self and strong ego
FREUD:
One of the first psychologists to realize the importance of critical periods and the significance of early experiences – how the id, ego, and superego interact
CONSULTATION MODEL PREFERRED BY NASP:
Indirect; building the consultee’s (teacher’s ) skills (Caplan’s consultation model)
CLIENT CENTERED CONSULTATION:
Benefits one client (student); SP intervenes with the student; time consuming; best practice is not to do this but to teach the teachers how to help themselves
CONSULTEE CENTERED CONSULTATION:
Benefits the teacher by building her skills that might be used to help numerous people; best practice at the present time
PROGRAM CENTERED ADMINISTRATIVE CONSULTATION:
Benefits an entire program or school; ex. In-service training for a school
CONSULTEE-CENTERED ADMINISTRATIVE MODEL
teaches skills to key administrators to effect change at many schools or a district
COMMON PROBLEM SOLVING CONSULTATION FORMAT:
1 – define the problem (specifically) 2 – analyze the problem and collect data if necessary 3- Plan an intervention, monitor and modify as necessary 4- evaluate the outcome and compare pre-post data
ECOLOGICAL MODEL (systems):
Examines how a person’s behavior is being maintained within the setting and systems
PROCESS CONSULTATION MODEL :
Uses workgroups, feedback, and work co-ordinations between groups
EFFECTIVE CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT METHODS:
Classroom rules explicitly stated and posted in the classroom; seating arrangements impact the flow and order of the class; rules must be consistently and immediately enforced; teachers provide feedback to the students (not punitive); point and level systems that are easy to implement; predictable routines; treat all students with dignity; stand close to students when giving instructions; rewards or punishments should be given immediately after the behavior
NASP AND PARENTAL NOTIFICATION AND INVOLVEMENT:
Teachers should be in contact with parents when student is struggling academically or behaviorally
PHONICS INSTRUCTION:
Sounding of letters to form words is effective method for teaching young students
PHONEMIC AWARENESS:
Necessary foundation for reading; ability to hear, segment and manipulate word sounds – teachers use phonemic awareness screeners
POSITIVE REINFORCERS ENDORSED BY NASP:
Support and use a child’s strengths as much as possible (aka Capacity model)
TOKEN ECONOMIES:
Cumbersome to implement; useful if easy and practical to maintain
TEACHING METHODS:
Encourages breaking complex task into smaller tasks ; Relate lesson to the student’s life; how it is beneficial; why they need to learn this; review previous days learning; preview new assignments; use multisensory approach (auditory, visual and tactile methods)
ACCOMMODATION:
changes in the enviroment, such as letting a student use a quiet room to take a test
MODIFICATION:
Relates to special education services – actually changing a task to perform; ex. Student who has difficulty writing might be allowed to complete half the number of questions than his peers
GOAL AND ROLE OF SPECIAL ED:
Increase student’s level of independence and responsibility
CURRICULUM BASED ASSESSMENT
Used in program evaluations
CURRICULUM BASED MEASUREMENT:
Utilized for classroom/instructional intervention planning
COGNITIVE BEHAVIORAL THEORISTS:
Learning is supported by mental representations of new concepts with existing concepts (schema) and through associations (pairing of a skill or idea with a reinforce)
IDEA
Gives right to a free and appropriate public education in the least restrictive environment
FERPA
Family Education Right to Privacy Act; sponsored in 1974; aka Buckley Amendment; gives families right to review the records of their child and the files must be kept confidential; people who do not have legal privileges cannot review a student’s file; confidentiality is central to this law
SECTION 504
Civil rights law guaranteeing access to a school building and to a school’s curriculum; enforced by the office of civil rights (not the DOE) enforces it; law governing the rights of handicapped people; students with vision or hearing problems sometimes fall in this category; ADHD students are said to have a physical handicapped and are entitled to have full access to the general curriculum
BROWN vs. BOARD OF EDUCATION:
Educators cannot segregate by race
HOBSON vs. HANSEN:
Schools must provide equal educational opportunities despite family’s SES; review laws regarding “ability” tracking
DIANA v. STATE BOARD OF EDUCATION:
Assessments must be administered in the native languages of the students; Similar to Guadalupe v. Temple School District – where it was ruled that students cannot be identified as MR unless they were properly assessed by considering the student’s primary language and had scores at least 2 SD below the mean
LARRY P v. RILES:
Ca. case ruled that percentage of minority students placed in Sp Ed classrooms could not exceed the percentage in the representative population; ruling based on the fact that there was an over-representation of minorities classified as mentally retarded
PASE v. HANNON:
Endorsed the use of standardized tests as long as they are not culturally biased and are used with other measures
MARSHALL v. GEORGIA:
Percentage of minorities in Sp Ed can exceed the percentage in the representative population as long as the appropriate and proper steps for placement were followed
HONIG v. DOE:
Sp Ed students must have a manifestation hearing to review placement if they are suspended more than 10 days
GIFTED EDUCATION:
Federal law does not require services or funding for those students who are gifted (IQ > 130)
ROWLEY v. BOARD OF EDUCATION:
Landmark case states that schools do not have to provide the best education, but an adequate
TARASOFF CASE:
Court rules that a school district has a duty to warn the parent if their son/daughter is in danger (important for anti-bullying programs)
LAU v. NICHOLS CASE:
Schools must provide accommodations for ESL students
IDEA – 1997:
Part C authorized Child Find for children 0-3 – based on PL 94-457, Education of the Handicapped Act PL-94-457 authorized early intervention of toddlers and families
PERKINS ACT:
Gives rights to transition special educational students into vocational programs; Occupational access.
NCLB:
Requires schools to hire “highly qualified” and has high standards that are gauged by objective measures. Schools that don’t meet requirements can lose federal funding
FOUR MAJOR LOBES OF THE BRAIN THAT PLAY A MAJOR ROLE IN PROCESSING INFORMATION:
Parietal lobes; Temporal lobes, Occipital lobes,
PARITETAL LOBES:
– located on the top portion of the brain – helps assimilate body sensations; helps developing symbolic associations and math skills; sometimes integrates information
Temporal Lobes
– located near and under the ears; this area of the brain processes auditory info and is implicated in reading problems (phonemic awareness difficulties)
Occipital Lobes
– Located at the back of the head, this area is responsible for processing visual information
MEMORY IN THE BRAIN:
No definitive answers as to what areas are responsible for storing memories, but is done by entire brain; the Hippocampus is implicated in forming memories because of emotions associated with it
AMYGDALA:
Associated with emotions and emotional responses
BROCA’S AREA AND WERNICKE’S AREA:
Implicated in speech/language problems and reading difficulties
CEREBRAL CORTEX:
Associated with higher order reasoning
ADHD:
Associated with dysfunctional frontal lobes; research is still emerging
APHASIA:
Inability to use language
AGNOSIA:
Inability to identify seen objects
LEFT HEMISPHERE:
Responsible for language, speaking, writing, math, and coordinating some complex movements
RIGHT HEMISPHERE:
Aids in recognizing patterns, faces, spatial relations and recognizing emotions
LIMBIC SYSTEM:
Part of the lower brain; houses the amygdale, hippocampus, and others responsible for emotions
TBI:
Leading cause of death in children under age 18; mild concussions can cause brain damage or information processing difficulties; affects cognitive and personality
ELASTICITY:
How the brain heals itself; the younger the child at the time of injury, the more at risk for permanent brain damage than adults
TBI ASSESSMENT:
Important to know location of injury and age at injury
FOCAL AND DIFFUSED BLOWS:
Focal blows are pointed, and diffused may occur on one side of the brain and affect another side
TBI INTERVENTIONS:
Focus on what the child can do and build on those strengths (strength based approach)
CRISIS:
Can be a bomb threat, intruder in the building, student suicide or natural disaster
CRISIS RESPONSE:
Preparation and rehearsal; explicit crisis plan in place at the start of each school year; “team” approach
PTSD:
Commonly associated with Crisis; may not be evident immediately following trauma; cognitive behavior approach is effective if it utilizes self-calming techniques, positive visualizations, empathetic perspective taking
SUICIDE:
Always detain suspected suicidal student and notify parents
SHOOTERS:
No specific profile; bullying seems to play a part in making some students act violently