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71 Cards in this Set

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pnuemonia associated with low-grade fever, not ill appearing, and without any lobar alveolar consolidation
atypical pneumonia
associated with apoptosis of infected columnar epithelial cells which can lead to secondary infections
Influenza
associated with host response releasing IFN-gamma
Influenza
Lacks cell wall and needs specialized agar media that contain sterols
Mycoplasma pneumoniae
associated with fried egg colony
mycoplasma pneumoniae
associated with P1 adhesin, ciliostasis, and peribronchial infiltration
Mycoplasma pneumoniae
associated with obligate intracellular bacteria that require host cell energy and infect epithelial cells
Chlamydia
two forms of chlamydia
elementary body
reticulate body
what does IFN do to a chlamydia infection
alters function of reticulate body, they can persist but not mature to form elementary bodies
associated with increased cholesterol accumulation in epithelial cells and CAD
chlamydia
associated with atypical pneumoniae, endocarditis, and encephalitis
Chlamydia psittaci
gram negative bacilli associated with replicating in a fresh water amoeba
Legionella pneumophila
what types of environments can Legionella be found
water coolers
shower heads
air conditioning units
whirlpools
what type of agar must legionella be grown in
Buffered Cysteine Yeast Extract - BCYE
associated with being phagocytosed by alveolar macrophages, induces apoptosis, and releases cytotoxic zinc metalloprotinase
Legionella pneumophila
alpha hemolytic, bile soluble, and optochin disc susceptible gram positive cocci
Strep peumoniae
virulence factors associated with strep pneumoniae
pneumolysin - degrades RBCs
capsule
beta hemolytic, can grow at high temperature and high salt concentrations, coagulase positive gram positive cocci
staph aureus
lab identification of staph aureus
hemolytic, gram positive clusters, ferments glucose and mannitol, catalase positive, coagulase poisitive
associated with Protein A and Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL)
staph aureus
panton-valentine leukocidin (PVL)
cytotoxin that causes leukocyte destruction and tissue necrosis
how does staph aureus resist neutrophil engulfment
secreting chemotaxis inhibiting protein and blocks extracellular adherence protein
in what form is coccidiodis found in tissue
yeast
mold on cooler agar plate
associated with focal infiltrate that later can form a non-caseating granuloma
coccidiodis
associated with inhaled arthrospore that developes into a spherule
coccidiodis
3 microbes that can be detected by urine antigens
Strep pneumoniae
Legionella pneumophila
Histoplasma capsulatum
ventilator associated pneumoniae from nosocomial infection
pseudomonas aeruginosa
identification of pseudomonas
clear colonies on MaConkey plate due to non-fermentation
Pigments fluoresce and blue-green
gram negative thin bacilli
gram negative bacilli that inhibits protein synthesis via ADP ribosylation of EF 2
Pseudomonas
Exotoxin A
two functions of cord factor
prevents the organism (M. tuberculosis) from being killed in the macrophage
strong activator of TNF-a
media associated with mycobacteria
Lowenstein-Jensen
Petragnani
Middlebrook
naked double stranded DNA virus that causes pharyngitis with low-grade fever
Adenovirus
unusual exterior feature of adenovirus
projecting fibers
most common cause of sinus pain and inflammation
strep pneumoniae
less commonly moraxella catarrhalis
unvaccinated child with history of recent travel, sore throat with pseudomembrane and heart irregularity
Corynebacterium diphtheriae
Beta-hemolytic gram positive cocci that causes erythrmatous pharyngitis, fever, and cervical lymphadenitis
Strep pyogenes
what is strep pyogenes susceptible to
Bacitracin
bronchiolitis in infants or children younger than 2
adenovirus
bronchiolitis in children 2-5 years old if hemagglutinin negative/positive
negative - respiratory syncytial virus
positive - parainfluenza virus
most common cause of pneumonia is children 5-18 years old with nonproductive persistent hacking cough
mycoplasma
lab identification of mycoplasm
no growth on blood agar
requires sterol containg media
beta-lactam antibiotics are not effective
most common causitive agent of lobar pneumoniae in all age groups presenting with fever and productive cough
strep pnuemonia
-espeically immunocompromised
pneumonia in teenage cystic fibrosis patient
pseudomonas aeruginosa
pneumonia in an AIDS patient with a dry cough who is not receiving any prophylactic drugs:
cysts, acid-fast, spherules, intracellular yeasts
pneumocytsis jeroveci - cysts
M. tuberculosis - Acid-fast
Coccidiodes - spherules
Histoplasma - tiny intracellular yeast
viral URI causing wheezing and chest hyperinflation in children less than 2 years old
respiratory syncytial virus
detects the production of enhanced hemolysis that occurs with group B strepococci
CAMP test
positive Bile Esculin hydrolysis
ability to grow in 40% bile and hydrolyze Esculin
group D streptococci (enterococci)
what organisms of groupD streptococci are able to grow in 6.5% NaCl, not able
Enterococci can
Viridan group cannot
Catalase negative
Bacitracin susceptible
PYR positive
bile-esculin negative
6.5% NaCl negative
Group A strep - strep pyogenes
PYR hydrolysis
hydrolyzed by group A strep and enterococci
Bacitracin resistant
bile-esculin negative
does not grow in 6.5% NaCl
CAMP test positive
Group B strep - strep agalactiae
Bacitracin resistant
Hydrolyze bile esculin
grow in 6.5% NaCl
PYR test positive
Enterococcus
Catalase negative
Optochin susceptible
bile soluble
strep pneumo
what type of organism usually is involved with an URI
virus:
-rhinovirus
-coronavirus
-adenovirus
associated with laryngitis and croup
parainfluenza
associated with Regan-Lowe charcoal media, takes 3-6 days to colonize
Bordetella pertussis
ADP ribosyl transferase that inhibits Gi, leads to incrase cAMP
pertussis toxin (A-B)
associated with epiglottitis
haemophilus type B
3 organisms associated with acute otitis media
Strep pneumoniae
Haemophilus influenzae (non-typeable)
Moraxella Catarrhalis
associated with inflammation of tympanic membrane
mycoplasma pneumoniae
why are some strands of haemophilus influenzae resistance to penicillin antibiotics
20-40% of them produce beta-lactamase
infections associated with unencapsulated (non-typeable) Haemophilus influenzae
sinusitis
bronchitis
otitis media
gram negative diplococci
80-90% produce beta-lactamase
grow on sheep blood and chocolate agar
unencapsulated
moraxella catarrhalis
3 organisms associated with sinusitis
strep pneumo
haemophilus influenzae
moraxella catarrhalis
*same as those involved with otitis media
patients presents with:
nasal congestion
purulent rinhorrhea
headache
facial pain
anosmia
post-nasal drip
sinusitis
herpangina
cocsackievirus
diptheria toxin
A-B toxin, A portion inhibits protein synthesis
responsible for rash in TSST and Scarlet Fever
Strep pyogenic Exotoxin acts like a superantigen and stimulates T lymphocyte cytokine release
associated with rheumatic fever or post-strep glomerulonephritis
strep pyogenes
differentiate bacterial and viral/chlamydia conjunctivitis
bacterial - thick mucopurulent discharge, less itchy, not painful, no pre-auricular lymphadenopathy
viral/chlamydia - clear water discharge, itchy painful eye, pre-auricular lymphadenopathy, foreign body sensation
leading cause of pharyngitis
strep pyogenes