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### 77 Cards in this Set

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 The Braden Scale is an example of what type of measurement? Ordinal. Identify the independent and dependent variables in the following hypothesis: Aggressive incentive spirometry leads to earlier hospital discharge. Independent variable: Use of incentive spirometry. Dependent variable: Length of stay/ Time of discharge. True or false. This question is an example of a nominal measurement. True. Nominal measurement is used to classify variables or events into categories. The use of (true/false) and (yes/no) questions is known as 'dichotomous' data analysis. Temperature is an example of what type of measurement? Interval. You are documenting the following vital signs for a patient: Height, weight, pulse, BP. These are examples of what type of measurement? Ratio. With interval and ratio data, you will use (parametric/nonparametric) statistics. Parametric. With nominal and ordinal data, you will use (parametric/nonparametric) statistics. Nonparametric. Use these statements to answer the following questions: I) Since beginning nursing school, my stress level has increased. (Yes/No) II) Nursing school stresses me out. (Yes/No) 1. These options are an example of what type of measurement? 2. These options demonstrate the use of what research characteristic? A) Validity: Convergent B) Validity: Divergent C) Reliability: Test-Retest D) Reliability: Parallel/Alternate form. 1. Nominal (Categorical) 2. D) Reliability: Parallel/Alternate form. The most commonly used test of internal consistency is ___? Cronbach's alpha. Mean is an example of what type of measurement (select all that apply)? A) Nominal B) Ordinal C) Interval D) Ratio D) Interval E) Ratio Median is an example of what type of measurement (select all that apply)? A) Nominal B) Ordinal C) Interval D) Ratio A through C. ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) is a test used in what kind of measurement? A) Nominal B) Ordinal C) Interval D) Ratio C) Interval. Will also accept Interval, Ratio. (See page 319, 324.) This is the most frequently used measure of variability. Standard deviation. (Parametric/Nonparametric) statistics are not based on estimation, so they involve less restrictive assumptions about the underlying distribution. Nonparametric. Chi-square is an example of a (parametric/nonparametric) statistic. Nonparametric. True/False. While reducing the level of significance (alpha level) limits the risk of a Type II error, it increases the risk of making a Type I error. False. Reducing the risk of a Type I error by reducing the level of significance increases the risk of making a Type II error. Logic: The more you increase the level of significance, the more you are willing to submit that the effect generated by the experiment manifested purely by chance. Therefore, you are more willing to accept the null hypothesis when it may not be true. In effect, as level of significance increases, risk for making a Type II error increases. You are more likely to use (parametric/nonparametric) statistics with large groups of data. Parametric. As level of significance increases, risk for making a (Type I/Type II) error increases. Type II. "Men are better at math than women." If the truth is that men are, in fact, no better at math than women, you are making what kind of error? (Type I/Type II) Type I. "Dog lovers are friendlier than cat lovers." If the truth is that dog lovers are, in fact, as friendly as cat lovers, you are making what kind of error? (Type I/Type II) Type II "There is a relationship between persistent pain and functional disability among older adults." 1. This is what kind of hypothesis? 2. Identify the independent/dependent variable(s). 1. Research: Non-directional. 2. Independent: Presence of pain. Dependent: Level of function/disability. What are the three basic principles of ethics? Respect for persons (self-determination/autonomy) Beneficence (do no harm) Justice (fair treatment) A potential harm that a reasonable person, in what the investigator knows or should know to be in the subject’s position, would be likely to consider injurious. Risk An adverse reaction to a drug is an example of what kind of risk? Physical. Loss of employment is an example of what kind of risk? Economic An alcoholic decides to be truthful about his habits on a survey. There is a possibility the contents of that survey may reach a third party and stigmatize the study participant. This is an example of what kind of risk? Social A researcher is testing the effects of meditative regression on child abuse victims. This study carries with it what kind of risk? Psychological (Therapy/Research) refers to interventions designed solely to enhance the well-being of the patient. (Therapy/Research) is an activity designed to test a hypothesis, permit conclusions to be drawn and thereby contribute to knowledge. Therapy; Research The study of research questions about human experiences is called ___. Qualitative Research Ideally, a qualitative study may conclude when: A) A select number of participants have been interviewed. B) A panel of experts have confirmed the study is valid. C) The researcher has reached data saturation. D) The research sample equals an equivalent percentage of the population tested. C) The research has reached DATA SATURATION. (When you begin receiving the same replies from any number of subjects.) True/False. There are no independent or dependent variables in qualitative study. True. A research approach designed to produce cultural theory. Ex: What are the issues of legitimacy that emerge in the experience of work-related back injury? Ethnography Theory that is constructed inductively from a base of observations of the world as it is lived by a selected group of people. A research approach that uses a systematic set of procedures to arrive at theory about basic social processes. Ex: How do family caregivers experience their role in home settings? Grounded Theory A research approach that aims to describe experience as it is lived through. A research method aimed at obtaining a description of an experience as it is lived in order to understand the meaning of that experience for those who have it. Ex: What is the meaning of aging for elders living in a community in Valencia, Spain? Phenomenology The systematic compilation of data and the critical presentation, evaluation, and interpretation of facts regarding people, events, and occurrences of the past. Ex: How did nurses actively influence the development of ICUs through observation and triage, as well as seeking out necessary knowledge? Historical Method In utilizing the historical research method of qualitative research, ___ judges the authenticity of the data source. (Ex: In determining whether Florence Nightingale really wrote some letters that are on display at a museum.) ___ concerns the reliability of information within the document (Ex: Evaluating those letters and weighing their contents against the social context at the time.) External criticism; Internal criticism Peter Tripp was a Top-40 countdown radio personality from the mid-1950s, whose career peaked with his 1959 record breaking 201 hour wakeathon (when he stayed awake for 201 consecutive hours while live on the radio.) Peter Tripp is an example of: A) A case study B) Extreme sampling C) Grounded theory method D) All of the above E) A and B only E) A and B only Observed measurement equals: True + Error (Xo = Xt + Xe; Slide 6, Reliability and Validity PPT.) Degree of consistency with which an instrument measures an attribute (concept). Reliability The reliability coefficient should be at LEAST ___. .70 Nursing students are administered a questionnaire at the beginning of the semester. They are administered that same questionnaire at the end of the semester. This is an example of ___ reliability. Test-Retest (Stability) Internal consistency is also known as ____, and describes the means with which items within a scale reflect or measure the same concept. Homogeneity Item-total, split-half, KR-20, and Cronbach's alpha are all tests that measure ____ (a kind of reliability). Homogeneity The Likert scale is associated with what method of testing? A) Item total B) Split half C) KR-20 D) Cronbach's alpha D) Cronbach's alpha Degree to which different instruments yield the same result. Equivalence (reliability) The extent to which an instrument measures the attributes of a concept accurately. Validity Expert panels deal with what kind of validity? Content validity ___ validity tests a new instrument against an established instrument. For instance: I wish to create a new scale for measuring pressure sores, so I test the new questionnaire against the Braden scale. Concurrent (criterion-related) validity This is the highest level of validity. A) Criterion-related B) Construct C) Content D) Concept B) Construct Validity Note: Construct validity uses empirical testing to test the existence of a hypothesized relationship. True/False. In nonexperimental design, there is manipulation of variables. False Threats to internal validity (increase/decrease) in nonexperimental design. Increase A researcher is examining the relationship between breast-feeding and childhood obesity. Routine data were collected on the height and weight of children participating in the obligatory health examination at the time of school entry in Boston. 1) This is an example of a ___ study. A) Cohort B) Prospective C) Longitudinal D) Cross-sectional 2) The dependent variable in this situation is: A) Height of children B) Weight of children C) Childhood nutrition D) Type of feeding 3) This study is an example of ___ evidence. A) Level I B. Level II C. Level III D. Level IV 1) D. Cross sectional. 2) B. Weight of children 3) D. Level IV (Non-experimental) Nonexperimental design is divided into correlational and developmental studies. Which of these investigates the relationship between two or more variables? Correlational ___ is the development and evaluation of data-collection instruments, scales, or techniques. Methodological research Meta-analysis or systematic review is ___ evidence. A) Level I B) Level II C) Level III D) Level IV A) Level I A secondary analysis deals with a (research/PICO) question. An integrative review deals with a (research/PICO) question. Research; PICO As coffee intake increases, test average increases. This is an example of what kind of hypothesis? Directional, research. Name the five steps in evidence-based practice. Ask Gather Assess Act Evaluate Which of these is conceptual and which is operational? A) Amount of pain a patient experiences postoperatively. B) Number of times a patient doses himself with a PCA. A. Conceptual B. Operational Which data collection method is most useful when studying children? Observation "I believe abortion should be legalized" is a(n) (overt/covert) statement. Overt. Example of a covert statement: Abortion should be legalized. An RCT is an example of a (quantitative/qualitative) research study. Quantitative A demographic anomaly or age are considered ___ variables. Antecedent "Sameness" in data collection is also known as ___. Intervention fidelity Asks, "Is it the independent variable or something else that resulted in the change in the dependent variable?" Internal validity A researcher is studying the effect of lap band surgery on obese patients. He hypothesizes that bariatric surgery will contribute to postoperative weight loss among these patients in the months following the procedure. When 19 out of 100 patients were reevaluated at the six-month mark, however, it was discovered that they had gained weight since their evaluation at the one-month mark, having learned to "eat around" the lap band by consuming high-calorie, low-volume food. This is an example of what threat to internal validity? A) Maturation B) Testing C) History D) Mortality E) Instrumentation F) Selection A) Maturation A nurse wishes to test the effect of egg-crate mattresses on the prevention of pressure sores. She hypothesizes that installing egg-crate mattresses on patient beds will decrease the incidence of pressure sores on patients in the hospital wing. To test her hypothesis, she monitors fifteen patients from the ninth floor at MD Anderson over the course of three months. Which of the following is a possible threat to internal validity? A) Maturation B) Selection C) Mortality D) Reactive effects B) Selection ___ questions under what conditions a study can be generalized. External validity The Hawthorne effect is an example of what threat to external validity? A) Reactivity B) Selection C) Measurement A) Reactivity A researcher is conducting a study aimed to assess the effects of contact isolation application on anxiety and depression levels of patients, and the thoughts of the isolated patients about contact isolation. This study was carried out with 60 isolated and 57 non-isolated patients with hospital infection, and it was found that of the patients, 86.4% of them told that they were happy to be in the isolation room. 1. This is an example of a: A) Experimental study B) Quasi-experimental study C) Methodological study D) Meta-analysis 2. This study contains ___ evidence. A) Level I B) Level II C) Level III D) Level IV 1) B. Quasi-experimental study 2) C. Level III Name the three characteristics of a true experimental study. Manipulation Control Randomization Name the three types of RCTs. True After-Only Solomon Four Group Name the three types of quasi-experimental designs. Non-equivalent group After-only Time series There are three types of nonprobability strategies of sampling. Name them. Convenience Quota Purposive Which of the following sampling strategies limits generalizability? A) Convenience B) Quota C) Purposive C) Purposive There are three types of probability strategies of sampling. Name them. Simple random Stratified random Cluster In researching the incidence of depression in cancer patients, I acquire a random sample of 80 cancer patients and divide the sample into men and women. This is an example of what kind of sampling? Stratified random