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39 Cards in this Set

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reflect one of two philosophies about how the world is understood
designs
approach assumes that there is an objective truth that can be revealed by investigators who are independent from their subjects
quantitative research
approach assumes that truth is subjective and relative to each individual
qualitative
those in which the researchers purposefully manipulate some of the subjects and then measure their resulting behavior
experimental design
this also involves purposeful manipulation of the subject by the investigators, but lack either a second group for comparison purposes or a random process, or both
quasi-experimental design
this is when the investigators are simply observers who collect information about the phenomenon of interest; there is no purposeful manipulation of subjects in order to produce a change in behavior or status
non-experimental designs
non-experimental designs are also known as ___
observation studies
a study in which repeated measures of an outcome are compared for a single group of subjects
within subjects design
a design in which outcomes are compared between two or more groups of subjects
between-subject design
design that has the maximal control imposed upon the behavior of the participants
experimental
collects data at a single point in time or a limited time interval
cross-sectional data
collects data over an extended period of time
longitudinal study
research design that uses historical information
retrospective design
research design that collects data in real time
prospective
provides data about the population or universe being studied.
descriptive research or statistical research
it can only describe the "who, what, when, where and how" of a situation, not what caused it
descriptive or statistical research
use three general ways to gather data: observation, interview or survey
observational design
this is the study of disease frequency and distribution in the community
epidemiological research
the science concerned with examining and determining the specific causes of health problems and interrelationships of factors
epidemiological research
study of disease frequency and distribution in the community
epidemiological research
used to study incidence, causes and prognosis.
cohort studies
because they measure events in chronological order, they can be used to distinguish between cause and effect
cohort study
research on risk factors relies heavily on this type of research design
cohort studies
defined as a group of people who already have the disease
cohort
types of cohort studies
1. propective
2. retrospective
a group of people is chosen who do not have the outcome of interest. the investigator then measures a variety of variables that might be relevant to the development of the condition. over a period of time the people in the same are observed to see whether they develop the outcome of interest
prospective cohort study
these use data already collected for other purposes.
retrospective cohort studies
the methodology is the same but the study is performed posthoc.
retrospective cohort studies
the study period may be many years but the time to complete the study is only as long as it takes to collate and analyze the data
retrospective cohort studies
most definitive long-term epidemiological studies to date on older women's health
nurses health study
a group of individuals with a similar condition is compared with a group that doe snot have the condition to determine factors that may played a role in the condition
case controlled study
this study compare groups retrospectively
case controlled studies
example of a case controlled study
Tobacco smoking and lung cancer by Sir Richard Doll
___ percent of lung cancer is caused by smoking
87 percent
proponents of Nurses Health Study
Dr. Frank Speizer 1976
Dr. Walter Willett 1989
it is the method of doing historical research for gathering and analyzing historical evidence
historical research
types of historical evidence
1. primary sources
2. secondary sources
3. running records
4. recollections
historians rely mostly on ____ sources which are also called ____ because they are kept in museums, archives, libraries, or private collections
primary, archival data
cardiovascular study that is an example of longitudinal study
framingham heart study