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62 Cards in this Set

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To report what other people say, we can use?
Direct speech or reported speech.
Direct speech is?
The EXACT WORDS someone used.
Reported speech is?
The EXACT MEANING of what someone said, but not the exact words.
To indicate direct speech, what device is used?
We use quotation marks (" ") in direct speech. [John said, "I will go to school tomorrow."]
Are quotation marks used in reported speech?
No. [John said (that) he would go to school the next day. (THAT can be omitted)]
In changing the direct speech, JOHN SAID, "I WILL GO TO SCHOOL TOMORROW." ,to a reported statement, JOHN SAID (THAT) HE WOULD GO TO SCHOOL THE NEXT DAY., we change the personal pronoun "I", the modal verb "will" (future) and the time "tomorrow" to?
HE, WOULD (PAST), and THE NEXT DAY, respectively.
In changing direct speech to reported speech involving PERSONAL PRONOUNS, an example about not buying fruit, might be?
He said, "I didn’t buy any fruits." He said he hadn’t bought any fruits.
In changing direct speech to reported speech involving POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS, an example about possessing a red bag might be?
He said, "The red bag is mine." He said the red bag was his.
In changing direct speech to reported speech involving POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES, an example about a missing book might be?
He said, "My book is missing." He said his book was missing
In changing the following direct speech sentence, HE SAID, "I’LL give her a surprise.", to a reported speech statement, the modal verb WILL becomes?
WOULD. (He said he WOULD give her a surprise.)
In changing the following direct speech sentence, He said, "I CAN do it.", to a reported speech statement, the modal verb CAN becomes?
COULD. (He said he COULD do it.)
In changing the following direct speech sentence, He said, "I MAY call you.", to a reported speech statement, the modal verb MAY becomes?
MIGHT. (He said he MIGHT call me.)
In changing the following direct speech sentence, He asked, "SHALL we go?" , to a reported speech statement, the modal verb SHALL becomes?
SHOULD. (He asked if we SHOULD go.)
In changing the following reported speech sentence, He said he MUST / HAD to go then., to a direct speech statement, the modal verb MUST/HAD becomes?
MUST. (He said, "I MUST go now.")
In changing the following reported speech sentence, He said he NEEDED write it down., to a direct speech statement, the modal verb NEED becomes?
He said, "I NEED write it down."
In changing the following reported speech sentence, He said he needn’t / didn’t need to write it down., to a direct speech statement, the modal verb NEED NOT / DID NOT becomes?
NEEDN’T. He said, "I needn’t write it down."
From direct speech to reported speech modal verbs do not change?
WOULD, COULD, MIGHT, SHOULD, OUGHT, HAD BETTER, USED TO and MUSTN’T.
In reported speech verb tenses change, generally?
One tense back in time from the tense in direct speech.
One tense back in time from present simple is?
Past simple (He said, "I HAVE a dog." He said he HAD a dog.)
One tense back in time from present continuance is?
Past continuous. (He said, "I’m cleaning my room." He said he WAS CLEANING his room.)
One tense back in time from present perfect is?
Past perfect. (He said, "I’ve bought a car." He said he had bought a car.)
One tense back in time from present perfect continuous is?
Past perfect continuous. (He said, "I’ve been waiting for one hour" He said he had been waiting for one hour.)
One tense back in time from past simple is?
Past perfect. (He said, "I met an old friend." He said he had met an old friend.)
One tense back in time from past continuous is?
Past perfect continuous. (He said, "I was reading at 9 last night." He said he had been reading at 9 the night before.)
One tense back in time from past perfect is?
Past perfect. (He said, "I had called her before you arrived." He said he had called her before we arrived.
One tense back in time from past perfect continuous is?
Past perfect continuous. (He said, "I had been working for six hours." He said he had been working for six hours.)
One tense back in time from future (will) is?
Would. (He said, "I’ll take five courses." He said he would take five courses. He said, "I’ll be studying at 8 tomorrow." He said he would be studying at 8 the next day. He said, "I’ll have come back by Friday." He said he would have gone back by Friday. He said, "I’ll have been living here for one year by next March." He said he would have been living there for one year by the following March.)
If the reporting verb is in the present simple, present perfect, and future tenses, the verb tenses in the noun clause?
Can remain the same. (My friend has said, "I cook dinner every day." My friend has said that she cooks dinner ever day.)
If it’s an up-to-date reporting or a general truth reporting, the verb tenses in the noun clause?
Remain the same. (Teacher: I’ll give you a copy of this article. Student1: What did the teacher say? Student2: She said she’ll give us a copy of the article. My father said, "Canada is in North America." My father said Canada is in North America.
In zero conditionals tenses do not change?
Yes. He said, "If you heat ice, it melts." He said if we heat ice, it melts.
In first conditionals tenses change according to the following rule?
The present simple becomes past simple in the if-clause and WILL becomes WOULD in the main clause. (He said, "If I see Dave, I’ll help him" He said if he saw Dave, he would help him.)
In second and third conditionals tenses?
Do not change. (He said, "If I had time, I would learn Spanish." He said if he had time, he would learn Spanish. He said, "If I hadn’t paid for my dinner, the waiter wouldn’t have let me go." He said if he hadn’t paid for his dinner, the waiter wouldn’t have let him go.)
Only the verb tenses in first conditionals?
Change.
Time expressions may change, e.g. NOW?
THEN, AT THAT TIME, IMMEDIATELY
Time expressions may change, e.g. TODAY?
THAT DAY
Time expressions may change, e.g. TOMORROW?
THE NEXT DAY, THE FOLLOWING DAY
Time expressions may change, e.g. YESTERDAY?
THE DAY BEFORE, THE PREVIOUS DAY
Time expressions may change, e.g. TWO DAYS AGO?
TWO DAYS BEFORE
Time expressions may change, e.g. TONIGHT?
THAT NIGHT
Time expressions may change, e.g. THIS WEEK?
THAT WEEK
Time expressions may change, e.g. NEXT WEEK?
THE WEEK AFTER, THE FOLLOWING WEEK
Time expressions may change, e.g. LAST WEEK?
THE WEEK BEFORE, THE PREVIOUS WEEK
Time expressions may change, e.g. THESE DAYS?
THOSE DAYS
Time expressions may change, e.g. HERE?
THERE
Time expressions may change, e.g. COME?
GO
When reporting questions, it is especially important to?
Pay attention to sentence order.
When reporting YES/NO questions, connect the reported question using?
IF or WHETHER.
When reporting WH-questions(why, where, when, etc.) use?
The question words.
A normal word order is used in reported questions, in other words?
The subject comes before the verb, and it is unnecessary to use the auxiliary verbs do/did/ etc. (He asked me, “Do you speak German?” He asked me if I spoke German. He asked me, “When did you come to Germany?” He asked me when I had come to Germany.)
Reported questions are usually introduced with the following reporting verbs?
ASK, INQUIRE, WONDER, WANT TO KNOW, etc. The question mark is omitted. In reported questions, the verb tenses, pronouns, adjectives, modal verbs and time expressions change? As in reported statements. (Kate asked me, "Have you bought the green coat? Kate asked me if I had bought the green coat. Kate asked me, "When did you buy the green coat? Kate asked me when I had bought the green coat.)
None
When the direct question begins with an auxiliary verb: be, do, does, did, have, has, had or a modal verb: can, could, may, might, etc. then the reported question begins with?
IF or WHETHER and the noun clause is in statement word order and with the necessary change as in reported statements. [Structure: Reporting verb + If / Whether + Noun clause. (Susan asked me, "Have you been to Italy? Susan asked / wondered if / whether I had been to Italy.)]
When the direct question begins with a question word when, where, what, who, why, which, how, etc. the reported question is introduced with?
The same question word and the noun clause is in statement word order and with the necessary change as in reported statements. [Structure: Reporting verb + Question word + Noun clause. (Mat asked me, "How did you come here this morning? Mat asked me how I had gone there that morning.)]
The ORDERING verb in direct speech is changed, in reported speech?
To the infinitive. (“GO to bed!” Mr. Brown said to his son. Mr. Brown told his son TO GO to bed.)
The SUGGESTING verb in direct speech is changed, in reported speech?
To the -ing form. (“SHALL WE GO out for dinner?” Sue asked. Sue SUGGESTED GOING out for dinner.)
The SUGGESTING verb in direct speech is changed, in reported speech?
To a noun clause. (“How about taking a walk together?” Nancy suggested. Nancy suggested that we take a walk together.”)
For exclamations beginning with “WHAT A / AN…!” or “HOW …!”, we use the reporting verbs?
EXCLAIM or SAY to report. (“WHAT A wonderful movie!” he said. He EXCLAIMED/SAID that it was a wonderful movie. He EXCLAIMED/SAID that the movie was wonderful.)
For exclamations like “WONDERFUL!”, “WOW!”, “OH!”, “MY GOD!”, “TERRIBLE!”, etc, we use the expression?
GIVE AN EXCLAMATION OF DELIGHT / DISGUST / RELIEF / SURPRISE, etc. (“Great!” he said as he saw the beautiful painting. He gave an exclamation of delight as he saw the beautiful painting.)
DECIDE, EXPECT, DEMAND, HOPE, PROMISE, REFUSE, THREATEN, AGREE, SWEAR, OFFER, CLAIM, and GUARANTEE are examples of verbs that when used as reporting verbs are combined with?
The infinitive. (He DECIDED TO GO. She HOPES TO FIND the book. Tonight’s play PROMISES TO BE a great performance.)
ADVISE, ALLOW, ASK, ORDER, BEG, REMIND, FORBID, INSTRUCT, INVITE, TEACH, TELL, WARN, and COMMAND are examples of verbs that when used as reporting verbs are combined with?
Reporting verbs + Objective pronoun + Infinitive. (He ORDERED THEM TO LEAVE. They INVITED ME TO TEACH the course. He WARNED HER not TO RETURN.)
SUGGEST, APOLOGIZE FOR, INSIST ON, ADMIT (TO), COMPLAIN OF, ACCUSE OF, BOAST ABOUT/OF , and DENY are examples of verbs that when used as reporting verbs are combined with?
Reporting verbs + gerund. (He INSISTED ON GOING. He ADMITTED TO LYING. They always COMPLAIN OF LOSING. She INSISTS ON SPEAKING next.)
Examples of reporting verbs that are combined with a THAT-CLAUSE containing SHOULD, include?
ADVISE, BEG, DEMAND, INSIST, PREFER, PROPOSE, RECOMMEND, REQUEST and SUGGEST. (He RECOMMENDED THAT we SHOULD go to that restaurant.)
ADMIT, ANNOUNCE, ARGUE, BOAST, CLAIM, COMMENT, COMPLAIN, CONFIRM, CONSIDER, DENY, EXPLAIN, EXCLAIM, ESTIMATE, FEAR, FEEL, INSIST, MENTION, OBSERVE, PERSUADE, PROMISE, PROPOSE, REMARK, REMEMBER, REMIND, REPEAT, REPLY, REPORT, SAY, STATE, SUGGEST, SUPPOSE, TELL, THINK,THREATEN and UNDERSTAND are all examples of verbs that when used as reporting verbs can be combined as?
Reporting verbs + That-clause (The management INSISTED THAT John leave. The astronomer OBSERVED THAT the comet was much bigger.)