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28 Cards in this Set

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Major Urinary System Functions
Water + ion balance*, excretion of metabolic wastes + foreign substances, hormone production, ECF volume, osmolarity, acid-base balance
Urinary System Components
Kidneys, ureters, bladder, urethra
Retroperitoneal Cavity
Between abdominal peritoneum and back bones + muscles
Kidney Layers
Outer cortex, inner medula, renal pelvis (upper end of ureter)
Nephron Portal System
Blood from renal arteries flows into afferent arterioles + enters glomerular capps. Leaves out efferent arterioles into peritubular capps in juxtamedullary nephrons + exits thru renal vein.
Nephron Anatomy
Renal corpuscle (glomerulus + Bowman's capsule), proximal tubule, loop of Henle, distal tubule + collecting duct.
Kidney Functions
Filtration, reabsorption, secretion.
Filtration driven by...
Hydrostatic pressure, colloid osmotic pressure, and fluid pressure.
Filtration Fraction
% total plasma volume that filters into tubule
Renal Corpuscle Filtration Barriers
Capillary endothelium (fenestrated capillaries), basal lamina (course sieve), Bowman's capsule epithelium (filtrations slits)
Glomerular Filtration Rate
Volume that filters into Bowman's capsule per unit time
GFR Regulation
Net filtration pressure, filtration coefficient, total SA available
GFR Influences
Hydrostatic pressure (pos.); colloid osmotic pressure (neg.) and fluid pressure created in Bowman's (neg.)
GFR Arteriole Resistance
Afferent resistance (site of most reg.) dec. hydrostatic pressure + GFR; efferent resistance inc. glomerular pressure + GFR
Autoregulation
Maintains constant GFR thru myogenic response, tubuloglomerular feedback, and hormones
Myogenic Response
Inc. blood pressure stretches artery smooth muscle to vasoconstrict. Dec. blood pressure results in maximal vasodilation
Tubuloglomerular Feedback
Paracrine signaling mechanisms thru which loop of Henle influences GFR: macula densa senses [Na+] while granular cells secrete renin
Hormone Autoregulation
Sympathetic neurons innervate alpha-receptors to induce vasoconstriction; angiotensin II vasoconstricts; prostaglandins vasodilate
Reabsorption Routes
Transepithelial transport, paracellular pathway, urea (passive), or plasma proteins (via transcytosis)
Reabsorption of Solutes + Water
Na+ transport creates electrochemical gradient, drives anion reabsorption, water osmotically follows solutes, dilutes lumen, solutes diffuse into ECF
Na+-linked Glucose Reabsorption
Apical Na+-glucose cotransporter (SGLT, active), basolateral glucose transporter (GLUT)
Saturation
Max. rate of transport occurs when all available carriers occupied by substrate
Filtration, Reabsorption, Excretion Relationship
When no secretion occurs, amt. excreted = amt. filtered - amt. reabsorbed; normal conditions, filtration=reabsorption; renal threshold, filtration > reabsorption & excretion begins
Secretion
Active transport of molecules from ECF into neph. lumen. Enhances neph. excretion. Competitive process (ex. penicillin + probenicid)
Excretion
Filtration - reabsorption + secretion
Clearance
Rate @ which solute leaves the body, by excretion or metabolism
Inulin
Admin. by continuous IV infusion, 100% excreted, so clearance = GFR
Creatinine
Endogenous, in muscles via PCr breakdown, 99% excreted, but need not be admin.