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58 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Dependent/Response Variable
A variable that is measured or observed from an individual
Reliability
The degree to which the results of a study can be replicated under similar conditions
Operational Definition
The definition of an abstract concept used by a researcher to measure or manipulate the concept in a research study
Nominal Scale
A scale of data measurement that involves non-ordered categorical responses
Qualitative Data
Non-numerical participant responses
Quantitative Data
Numerical data
Ordinal Scale
A scale of data measurement that involves ordered categorical responses
Interval Scale
A scale of data measurement that involves numerical responses that are equally spaced, but scores are not ratios of each other
Ratio scale
A scale of data measurement that involves numerical responses, where scores are ratios of each other
Likert Scale
A scale of responses that measures a participant's agreement of disagreement with different types of statements, often with a rating from 1 to 5 or 1 to 7
Reaction Time
Measurement of the length of time to complete a task
Construct Validity
indicates that a survey measures the behavior it is designed to measure
Nonverbal Scale
Survey response scale that involves pictorial response categories for participants with low verbal skills (e.g., children)
Face Validity
On the surface, a study of scale appears to be intuitively valid
Interrater Reliability
A measure of the degree to which different observers rate behaviors in similar ways
Independent Variable
A variable in an experiment that is manipulated by the researcher such that the levels of the variable change across or within subjects in the experiment
Presence/Absence Variables
A variable that involves a manipulation with a level that involves the treatment and a level that does not involve the treatment
Bivalent Independent Variable
An independent variable with two levels--a design is considered bivalent if it contains one bivalent independent variable
Type Variable
a variable that involves a manipulation of types of a treatment
Amount Variable
Variables that include levels with a different amount of the treatment changing from level to level
Multivalent Variable
An independent Variable that includes three or more levels--a design is considered multivalent if there is only one independent variable that contains three or more levels
Quasi-Independent/Subject Variable
Variable that allows comparison of groups of participants without manipulation (i.e., no random assignment)
Internal Validity
The degree to which a study provides causal information about behavior
Confounding Variable
An extraneous factor present in a study that may affect the results
Experimenter Bias
A source of bias in a study created when a researcher treats groups differently (often unknowingly) based of knowledge of the hypothesis
Single-Blind Design
Procedure used to hide the group assignment from the participants in a study to prevent their beliefs about the effectiveness of a treatment from affecting the results
Placebo
A sugar pill given to the control group in a drug study to allow all groups to believe that they are receiving a treatment
Double-Blind Design
Procedure used to control for experimenter bias by keeping the knowledge of the group assignments from both the participants and the researchers who interact with the participants
Testing Effects
Occur when participants are tested more than once in a study with early testing affecting later testing
Within-Subjects Variable
Each participant experiences all levels of the variable
Between-Subjects Variable
Each participant experiences only one level of the independent variable
Counterbalance
A control used in within-subjects experiments where different participants are assigned in equal numbers to the different orders of the condition
Regression Toward the Mean
Can occur when participants score higher or lower than their personal average-- the next time they are tested, they are more likely to score near their personal average, making scores unreliable
History Effect
Events that occur during the course of a study to all or individual participants that can result in bias
Maturation
Natural changes that occur to the participants during the course of a study that can result in bias
Attrition/Mortality
Occurs when participants choose not to complete a study
External Validity
The degree to which the results of a study apply to individuals and realistic behaviors outside the study
Hawthorne Effect
A source of bias that can occur in a study due to participants changing their behavior because they are aware that they are being observed
Field Experiment
An experiment conducted in the participants' natural environment
Demand Characteristics
A source of Bias that can occur in a study due to participants changing their behavior based on the perception of the study and its purpose
Survey Research
A research study that uses the survey observational technique to measure behavior
Descriptive Research Question
A research question that asks about the presence of behavior, how frequently it is exhibited, or whether there is a relationship between different behaviors
Predictive Research Question
A research question that asks if one behavior can be predicted from another behavior to allow predictions of future behavior
Causal Research Question
A research question that ask what causes specific behaviors to occur
Psychometrics
Area of psychological research that involves the development, validation, and refinement of surveys and tests for measuring psychological constructs
Open-Ended Response Scale
Participants respond to survey questions in any manner they feel is appropriate for the question
Closed-Ended Response Scale
Participants respond to survey questions according to the response options provided by the researcher
Construct Validity
Indicates that a survey measures the behavior it is designed to measure
Nonresponse Error
A sampling error that occurs when individuals chosen for the sample do not respond to the survey, biasing the sample
Coverage Error
a sampling error that occurs when the sample chosen to complete a survey does not provide a good representation of the population
Criterion-Related Validity
Determining the validity of the scores of a survey by examining the relationship between the survey scores and other established measures of the behavior of interest
Social Desirability Bias
Bias created in survey responses from respondents' desire to be viewed more favorably by others, typically resulting in overreporting of "positive" behaviors and underreporting "negative" behaviors
Test-Retest Reliability
Indicates that the scores on a survey will be similar when participants complete the survey more than once
Attrition/Mortality
Occurs when participants choose not to complete a study
Testing Effects
Occur when participants are tested more than once in a study with early testing affecting later testing
Internal Consistency
A form of reliability that tests relationships between scores on different items of a survey
Split-Half Reliability
Method of testing scores' internal consistency that indicates if the scores are similar on different sets of questions on a survey that address similar topics
Cronbach's Alpha
Method of testing scores' internal consistency between scores on all pairs of items on a survey