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32 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Time structure
are for those types of residual messages that span a series of time, give direction about how to do stuff
Space structure
shoud be used when a residual message shows a group of parts and how they make up a whole.
Classification structure
may be used for any topic for which you arbitrarily impose structure
Comparison structure
used when things or events are compared and alleged to be similar
Contrast structure
used when two things or events are compared and alleged to be different
Cause/Effect structure
used to show the relationships among things and/or events in which it is alleged that are brought about another, or one logically eminated from another
Problem-Solution structure
there is a problem and solution
Anything other than the speaker used to clarify key points by appealing to audiences senses
Visual Aides
Credibility
how we became interested in the topic, how we developed our expertise, where we get sources
Listening Rational
give the audience reasons why we should listen
Informative speech (purpose)
to explain or describe something in such a way the audience understands the way you want them to
Type of speech which is delivered with little or no immediate prepartion
Impromptu speech
Type of speech where you come across as reading rather than talking with
Reading
Type of speech which is carefully prepared and practiced in advance
Extemporaneous speech
Persuasive speech (purpose)
Bring your audience to a decison that is hopefully yours
Monroe's Motivated Sequence
1. Get audience's attention
2. Establish need for change
3. Talk about how your proposed solution will satisfy the problem
4. What will change if you do what I say
5. Call for action
Ethos
credibility, perceptions of our character, intelligence, and goodwill
Pathos
emotional appeals, works well with people that already believe
Logos
"the word". A way to organize ideas so others understand them. How to argue/persuade
2 kinds of proof
Artistic and Inartistic
Leadership styles
Authority w/o discussion, authority after discussion, expert decisions, majority control, averaging individual opinions, consensus
That one part of the speech that people will remember
Residual Message
Time questions/examples
Where does it come from? How does it work?
Ex. to get a job you have to develop resume, secure interview, etc.
Space questions/examples
Where is it? How does it look?
Ex. 3 parts of a hot air balloon
Classification questions/examples
How can a thing be divided?
Ex. 3 types of shows, comedy, drama, soap opera
Comparison questions/examples
What is it like?
Ex. Hilary Clinton is a presidential candidate
Contrast questions/examples
What does it differ from? Are there things that it looks like, but is actually different?
Ex. The problems in New Jersey differ from those in PA
Cause/Effect questions/examples
What caused it? What does it mean?
Ex. TV ads increase sales
Problem-Solution questions/examples
Ex. there are 3 solutions to the problem of getting physically fit
Vocal things to do
Vary pitch, change rate, effective pausing, loudness
How to make a good conclusion
Signal the end, reinforce the central idea with a summarization, a quote, a dramatic statement, or referring to the introduction
Audience analysis factors
Gender, age, sexual orientation, racial/ethnic/cultural background, size, knowledge