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58 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Generalization
react to things that are similar to CS
Discrimination
discriminate between the CS and similar things
Extinction
“wears off”
Spontaneous Recovery
CS returns
Classical conditioning
learning to associate "something" with "something" that it has never been associated with before.
Operant Conditioning-
learning to change to behavior based upon the consequences (good and bad) B.F. Skinner
The Law of Effect
behavior followed by good consequences will probably occur again. Behavior followed by bad consequences will probably not occur again.
Shaping-
•reinforcement (increase a target behavior)
•reinforce behaviors that successively lead up to the target behavior
Modeling
refers to when you see someone do a behavior you are modeling their behavior
Learned Helplessness
1. result of learning
2. experiences abuse, neglect, mistreatment, trauma, over a long period of time
3. repeatedly try to escape
4. every attempt is unsuccessful
Observational Learning
learn by watching others
Memory
1. Encode- you have to understand it
2. Store-
3. retrieval
Sensory memory-
1. Ichonic memory- visual memory that holds info for a portion of a second
2. Echoic memory- auditory memory that holds information for a few seconds
3
Maintenance Rehearsal-
repeating it until you can put it somewhere else
Chunking
process to group info together to make it easier to remember
Long term memory
limitless
Procedural Memory
skills, procedures
Episodic memory
personal memories of events
Semantic Memory
general knowledge (definitions, facts, dates, trivia)
Eidetic Memory
Photographic memory
Mnemonic Devices
"memory aids"
Maintenance Rehearsal
use repetition
Elaborative Rehearsal
make a connection between information that is already in your memory and the new information
Interference
1. retroactive-new information interferes with old information
2. proactive- old information interferes with new
Serial Position Effect
1. the order of how info is presented will impact memory.
a. The Primacy Effect- first bits of info remembered better.
b. The Recency Effect- memory better for more recent bits of info.
Forgetting
• Organic Amnesia- loss of memory due to an illness or injury
• Retrograde Amnesia- forget anything before the event Old info
• Anterograde Amnesia- forget anything after the event
False memory-
event that never occurred
State dependent memory
• memory retrieval will be its best if done in the same "state" (location or environment, mental state, physical state)
Flashbulb Memory
events that are so vivid it's like a photograph
Hebb's cell assemblies
neurons whose activities have been altered b
Schedules of reinforcement-
Continuous

Partial

Ratio means number of times you do a behavior.

Interval- amount of time (clock or calendar)

Fixed Ratio- fixed number of times you do a behavior
Variable Ratio- changing number of times you do a behaviior ( unset)
Fixed Interval- Fixed amout of time on clock, calendar
Variable Interval- changing amount of times you do a behavior
Motivation
The psychological feature that arouses an organism to action toward a desired goal; the reason for the action; that which gives purpose and direction to behavior.
Psychoneuroimmunology
science of how psychology. impacts your neurology
1. Trial & Error
a. looking at every possible solutions one by one to see which one is correct.
b. Disadvantage- trial and error
2. Heuristics-
a. rules of thumb
b. quick fix solution
3. Algorithm
a. Guaranteed a solution by evaluating every possible scenario until a solution is found
4. Functional Fixedness
a. When someone gets stuck on an object’s intended purpose and is unable to see the other functions it could serve
Weschler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)-
IQ test
Confirmation Bias- Social psychology
only listen to evidence that support your opinion
Long Term Potentiation
more a neuron is stimulated, the less stimulation it will need to be used in future
Hebb's cell assemblies
neurons being altered through experiance
psycholinguistics
branch of cognitive psychology that studies the psychological basis of linguistic competence and performance
Phonemes
Smallest units of meaningful language
3. Morphemes-
b. Smallest unit of language
c. No meaning by itself- sound
3. Syntax
a. Synonymous with grammar
b. A languages rules for how to combine words into sentences
Nature-Nurture (Controversy) Issue
1. Nature- Genetics ( genetic predisposition)
2. Nurture- environment / experiences
Maturation
refers to the genetic sequence of how we develop
4. Semantics
a. meanings
Prenatal Development
1. Germinal Stage- shortest- begins when egg and sperm meet, cell division occurs
2. Embryonic Stage- begins when egg implants in uterus wall
i. Organogenesis- organ and organ systems start to develop
3. Fetal Stages- longest
i. Viability- the point at which that developing baby can survive outside the womb.
Physical Growth
1. Cephalocaudal- the pattern of development where things near the head develop before things further away (tail)
2. Proximodistal- pattern of development where things at the center of the body develop before things farther away
1. Assimilation
use their existing ways of understanding to label new objects and experiences
2. Accommodation
they change their existing ways of thinking to adapt to new experiences.
Jean Piaget’ Theory (4 stages) Know order
a. Sensorimotor- (infants)
1. Object Permanence- realization that object continue to exist when out of view
b. Preoperational- (2-Preschool)
1. Use of symbols
2. Conservation- the understanding that things remain the same even if you change the appearance
3. Egocentrism- view the world as being centered around themselves
c. Concrete Operations
d. Formal Operations
Attachment
Intense emotional tie between two individuals, such as an infant and a parent
Mary Ainsworth's "Strange Situation"
procedure, where a on year old behavior in unfamiliar enviorment is assessed under various circumstances.
Erik Erikson's Theory
1. Trust versus Mistrust

2. Autonomy versus shame and doubt

3. Initiative versus guilt

4. Industry versus inferiority

5. Identity versus role confusion

6. Intimacy versus isolation

7. Generativity versus stagnation

8. Ego integrity versus despair
Gender Identity
and individual's subjective sense of being male or female
Gender Role
set of behavior that is considered normal and appropriate for each sex in society