Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/170

Click to flip

170 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The Structuralists thought the proper goal of psychology was to...
Break the conscious experience down into its basic elements
Who originated psychoanalytic psychology?
Freud
Psychoanalysis involved "catharsis". What does catharsis refer to?
A talking cur where early childhood experiences are told.
The statement " the whole of experience is different from the sum of its parts" sums up which approach to psychology?
Gestalt
Humanistic psychology tends to gocus on such concepts as..
love, feelings, and self-esteem
Thinking , language, problem solving, and creative ability are receiving the most attention from the
cognitivist
The_______ psychologist studies the human life cycle from bith to death
developmental
A psychologist interested in how people's unique characteristics and traits influence their responses to a stressful situation could best be classified as a
personality psychologist
A research method which consists of manipulating some environmental event in order to observe the effects of the manipulation on the behavior of the subjects under controlled conditions is called a/an
experiment
If a researcher is interested in the relationship between birth order (first, second, third born) and popularity, the researcher would be most likely to use the
correlational method
The nervous system of all humans consists of two major parts:
the central and the peripheral nervous systems.
When you touch a rough surface, the sensation is carried to the central nervous system by the --------nerves
afferent
If you touch a hot stove,k you will quickly and automatically remove your hand. The movement of the muscles is a result of nerve impulses from
motor neurons
Myelin sheaths serve the purpose of
insulating the axon to speed neural transmissions
Neurotransmitter substances are contained and released form the
axon terminal buttons
Small gaps in myelin sheath are called
Nodes of Ranvier
The autonomic nervous system regulates
involuntary activities
The fight or flight response is a direct result of the activation of the
Sympathetic nervous system
if you were to fall backward and hit the back of your head very hard on a cement wall, which of the following is a likely result?
you will become blind
The degree to which a particular function is controlled by one rather than the other hemisphere is referred to in the text as
lateralization of function
What is psychology?
systematic and scientific study of behavior and mental processes of both humans and other animals
Rene Descartes/ Dualism
belief that the mind and body are two distinct entities
Determinism
belief that behavior is causes or determined by physical events either within or outside of the body
Wilhelm Wundt
first psychological laboratory in Leipzig, Germany in 1879
Structuralism
focus on breaking down conscious experience into it's basic elememts or structures in an attempt to understand the mind.
Introspection
looking inward, clearly breaking down, analyzing, and reporting sensations.
Basic Flaw
therapists and researchers would often obtain inconsistant results
William James/ Functualism
focus on the functional continually changing, personal nature of conscious experience
Freud:
Psychoanalytical/ Psychoanalysis
Psychoanalytical
understandin issues of psychology
Psychoanalysis
"talking cure" became known as catharsis where people discuss their problems and may feel better
Psychoanalytical/Psychoanalysis Criticisms
its theoretical claims cannot be tested in a laboratory
Psychoanalytical three areas of focus
1. Early childhood experiances
2. The unconscious mind
3. Sexual urges and drives as main motivation factor in behavior.
John B Watson/ Behaviorism
approach of study that focuses on the relationship between environmental events and an organism's behavior
Gestalt Psychology
the "whole" of an experience is more than "the sum of its parts"
Phi Phenomenon
Moving lights, film
Humanistic Psychology
approach of study that focuses on the role of free choice and our ability to make conscious rational decisions about how we live our lives
Cognitive Psychology
Focus on how organism process information, Thinking, memory, language, prob lem solving, creativity
Developmental Psychology
Factors that influence development from conception through death (lifespan)
Social Psychology
studies the impact of the social enviroment on the individual
Personality Psychology
Studies how personality develops, how it influences people's behaviour, and how to assess the3 basic elements that make an individual unique
Experimental Psychology
primary activity is conducting research in a variety of areas that fall under the realm of psychology
Biological Psychology
studies the relationship between behavior and physiological and neurological events or conditions
Health Psychology
studies the interaction between behavioral factors and physical health
Geropsychology
studies issues that are unique to the aging population and their experiences
Small gaps in myelin sheath are called
Nodes of Ranvier
The autonomic nervous system regulates
involuntary activities
The fight or flight response is a direct result of the activation of the
Sympathetic nervous system
if you were to fall backward and hit the back of your head very hard on a cement wall, which of the following is a likely result?
you will become blind
The degree to which a particular function is controlled by one rather than the other hemisphere is referred to in the text as
lateralization of function
What is psychology?
systematic and scientific study of behavior and mental processes of both humans and other animals
Rene Descartes/ Dualism
belief that the mind and body are two distinct entities
Determinism
belief that behavior is causes or determined by physical events either within or outside of the body
Wilhelm Wundt
first psychological laboratory in Leipzig, Germany in 1879
Structuralism
focus on breaking down conscious experience into it's basic elememts or structures in an attempt to understand the mind.
Introspection
looking inward, clearly breaking down, analyzing, and reporting sensations.
Basic Flaw
therapists and researchers would often obtain inconsistant results
William James/ Functualism
focus on the functional continually changing, personal nature of conscious experience
Freud:
Psychoanalytical/ Psychoanalysis
Psychoanalytical
understandin issues of psychology
School Psychology
Focuses on the evaluation and resolution of learning and emotional problems.
Clinical and Counseling Psychology
Study and practice of assessing, diagnosing and treating psychological problems.
What is the difference between a psychologist and a psychiatrist?
A psychiratrist has medical trainin and is a "doctor" who has specialized in assessment and treatment of mental disorders.
Eclectic Therapist
meaning that they borrow from any approach as needed for any individual client
Typically charge much less than a psychiatrist, but depends on the therapy setting
Goals of Psychology
•"Describe" without bias and personal interpretation.
•"Explain" be investigation, data collection, referring to existing knowledge and asking questions
•"Predict" behavior based upon the explanations previously made. ('If this is the case....then we can safely assume that this will be the result.")
•"Control" behavior through modification or using influence
Three basic reasons for research
oTo Test a hypothesis
oTo Solve a problem
oTo duplicate previous research
Survey Method
1.Inexpensive, easy and not time consuming.
2.Data collected may be biased for many reasons. (Demographic bias, sex bias, impact of how questions are presented, convenience samples)
Case Studies
1.A major advantage is that a great deal of information can be collected
2.A disadvantage is that the results or the study do not "generalize" well to other populations.
Correlational Studies
look at the relationship between things.. Look at how variables might be related. Do not show cause and effect.
-Independet Variable
This is the variable that is manipulated by the researcher to see if it changes the value of the DV
*always as 2 levels or more
Dependent Variable
- the outcome of study expressed in numbers
Experiments
- only form of research that will show cause and effect.
-more control variables
- Laboratory or controlled setting
Placebo Effect
minds ability to fool you
Double Blind Study
-vounteers don't know
-researcher doesn't know
Randomly select people
Random assignment
to assign them to different group
Neurons
are bodies way of communication
Dendrites
are the receptors, receive messages from other neurons, senses, or organs. only moves in on directions from the dendrites down. Messages are electrical chemical Message. When it gets to the terminal buttons it starts the chemical message.
• Terminal buttons
create store and release neurotransmitters (chemicals)
• Reuptake
• - naturally occurring event where Neural transmitter is soaked back up into the terminal buttons after being released.
• Serotonin-neuron transmitter
has been associated with depression. If your body has too little serotonin
• SSRI- category of antidepressants
Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors
Central Nervous system
--Brain and spinal cord
Peripheral Nervous system
Everything else
Somatic Nervous system
voluntary
muscle movements
• Autonomic Nervous System
involuntary
Sympathetic
Parasympethetic
Parasympathetic
returns things back to normal.
Efferent (motor neurons)
exit the spine so you can move
Afferent (sensory neurons) neurons
that go away from the senses to the spine
Medulla
vital reflexes
Pons
connects brain and spine/ also releasing chemicals involved in sleep
Cerebellum
coordinated and timed muscle movements
Amygdala
responsible for emotional memories
Hippocampus
long term memory
Hypothalamus
motivated behaviors (hunger, thirst, sex, ..etc.)
Thalamus
sensory relay station
Cerebral Cortex
wrinkled covering of the brain
Corpus Callosum
densely packed neurons that both seperates and connects the hemispheres
Lateralization
refers to the fact that we know certain functions are in certain hemispheres.
Occipital lobe
vision, visual interpretation
Temporal Lobe
mainly responsible for hearing and interpreting what you hear.
Frontal Lobe
personality, movements, emotion
Parital lobe
Sensory info (touch), spatial information
Electroencephalogram- EEG
- electrical "waves" in brain activity.
-Used in sleep studies
Pheneas Gage-
was a railroad worker that was victim of accident damaged frontal lobe)
Computerized Axial Tomography- CAT
Computerized x-ray looking at the structures of the brain
Positron Emission tomography -PET
Inject Radioactive substance to see the functioning of the brain
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
radio waves used to look at structures of the brain
Sensation
-raw "data"hitting or stimulating your senses
Synesthesia
ability to hear flavors or see sounds
Perception
- your personalized interpretation
Retina
The light-sensitive membrane covering the back wall of the eyeball; it is continuous with the optic nerve
photoreceptors-
neurons stimulated by light
•cones- allows to see color, detail, bright light
•rods- black white and shades of grey, no detail, dim light
Transduction
raw data---> sensory neuron---> dendrites--->turn into and electrical message
Adaptation
sensory neurons get used to a continuous or unchanging stimulus (get bored) so they stop reacting to the stimulus
Accommodation
lense changing shape in the eye to allow you to focus
Threshold
minimum level of intensity needed for you to sense a stimulus.
Subliminal Stimulus
below threshold
Absolute Threshold
perceive a stimulus at least 50% of the time
Difference Threshold
the change of intensity from the original level of stimulus, must be changed enough for someone to perceive a difference or a change has occurred.
Weber's Law
the larger the intensity of the original stimulus, the larger the "change: in intensity has to be to tell that there has been a change. (JND)
Trichromatic theory-
• red
• green
• blue
Problem with this theory is we are missing a primary color (yellow is missing- a primary color)
Gustation
sense of taste
Opponent-process theory-
asserts that emotions are paired, and that when one emotion in a pair is experienced, the other is suppressed.
Olfaction
sense of smell
Kinesthesis
Bodily sense that provides information about perceptions of the location of various body parts in relation to other parts and about the position of the body in space
Vestibular sacs
structures at the junction of the semicircular canals, and cochlea of the middle ear that provide information about the head's position in space.
Depth Perception
being able to perceive or understand distance or depth
Interposition
cue based only the fact that object close to us then to block out parts of objects that are farther away.
Monocular Cue
Linear perspective
binocular cue in which parallel lines go off in a distance appear to come together
Monocular Cue
Texture Gradient
cue based on the fact that textured surfaces appear to be smoother, denser, and less textured when they are far from the viewer than when they are close
Monocular Cue
Motion Parallax
cue based on the fact that moving object appear to move a greater distance when they are close to the viewer than when they are far away
binocular Cues
Convergence
muscles in the eye move your eye inward, the closer things get.
binocular Cues
Retinal Disparity
the differences in the image hitting the retina of one eye compared to the other because they are in different locations
Visual Cliff
illusion of a cliff, allowing researchers to test the ability of animals to perceive and respond to depth cues
Drug abuse
continued use of a drug even though the user knows it's causing dysfunction or negatively impacts life.
Drug Use
means your using a drug
Withdrawal
reaction of stopping the use of a substance (negative issues, even painful reactions)
Opponent-process theory-
asserts that emotions are paired, and that when one emotion in a pair is experienced, the other is suppressed.
Olfaction
sense of smell
Kinesthesis
Bodily sense that provides information about perceptions of the location of various body parts in relation to other parts and about the position of the body in space
Vestibular sacs
structures at the junction of the semicircular canals, and cochlea of the middle ear that provide information about the head's position in space.
Depth Perception
being able to perceive or understand distance or depth
Interposition
cue based only the fact that object close to us then to block out parts of objects that are farther away.
Monocular Cue
Linear perspective
binocular cue in which parallel lines go off in a distance appear to come together
Monocular Cue
Texture Gradient
cue based on the fact that textured surfaces appear to be smoother, denser, and less textured when they are far from the viewer than when they are close
Monocular Cue
Motion Parallax
cue based on the fact that moving object appear to move a greater distance when they are close to the viewer than when they are far away
binocular Cues
Convergence
muscles in the eye move your eye inward, the closer things get.
binocular Cues
Retinal Disparity
the differences in the image hitting the retina of one eye compared to the other because they are in different locations
Visual Cliff
illusion of a cliff, allowing researchers to test the ability of animals to perceive and respond to depth cues
Drug abuse
continued use of a drug even though the user knows it's causing dysfunction or negatively impacts life.
Drug Use
means your using a drug
Withdrawal
reaction of stopping the use of a substance (negative issues, even painful reactions)
Psychological dependence
the condition in which a person feels that he or she needs drugs in order to cope with problems, function better in life, or feel different, whether there is a physical addiction or not.
Physiological dependence
A state of dependency or addiction in which one has physically adapted to a substance and often requires increasing amounts to achieve the same effect. Physical distress may be experienced upon discontinuing use of the drug
Tolerance
after repeated use of a substance you need more and more to acheive same impact of the substance
NREM Non Rapid eye movement sleep
stages of sleep during which rapid eye movements typically do not occur.
REM Rapid eye movement sleep
State of sleep characgterized by rapid eye movements, and often associated with dreaming.
NREM Stage 1 sleep
Light sleep that occurs just after dozing off, characterized by brain waves called theta waves
NREM Stage 2 sleep
characterized by brief bursts of brain activity called sleep spindles as well as K-complex responses to stimuli such as noises
NREM Stage 3 sleep
Characterized by an EEG tracing 20 to 50 percent of which consists of delta waves. virtually no eye movement
NREM Stage 4 sleep
Deepest level of sleep, EEG tracing exceeding 50 percent delta waves and virtually no eye movements
Paradoxical sleep
A recurring sleep state during which dreaming occurs; a state of rapidly shifting eye movements during sleep
pseudoparalysis
A voluntary restriction or inhibition of motion because of pain, incoordination, or other cause, not due to actual muscular paralysis.
Hallucinations
Illusory perception; a common symptom of severe mental disorder
REM rebound
lengthening and increase in frequency and density of REM periods, which results in an increase in REM percent above base line. REM rebound follows REM deprivation once the inhibitory influence is removed
Sleep disorders
class of disorders that interfere with sleep
Insomnia
consistent inability to get ot sleep or by frequent awakenings during sleep
Sleep Apnea
irregular breathing during sleep
Narcolepsy
falling asleep suddenly and uncontrollably
Sleep
when a person suddenly awakens from stage 4 sleep in a panic, typically with no recollections of a bad dream