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110 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Today's psychologist
are interested in both behaviour and mental processes.
Descartes "dualism" refers to
the belief that the mind and body are distinct entities
Who established the first psychological laboratory in 1879?
Wilhelm Wundt
If while watching an exquisite sunset you stop and analyze your sensations, thoughts, and feelings, you would be performing introspection as the ____ once did
Functionalist emphasize the study of
how organisms adapt to their environment
Which of the following theoretical apporoaches was started by Sigmund Freud?
the psychoanalytical approach
The statement "the whole of experience is different from the sum of it's parts" sums up which approach to psychology?
Humanistic psychology tends to focus on such concepts as
love, feelings, and self-esteem
___ psychologist are interested in learning about mental processes such as problem solving, memory, language and creativity.
Apsychologist is interested in studying the different types of friendships people tend to have at different times of their lives, and the issues involved in maintaining effective and fulfilling relationships.
Psychologists whose primary activity is conduction research are called
experimental psychologists
Jane's thyroid gland has become inactive, and as a result, she is becoming lethargic and has gained weight. We know that the thyroid glad hormone can cause this reaction because of studies done by
health psychologist
A psychologists differs from a clinical psychologist in which improtant way?
He or she has a medical degree
The relationship between emotional stress and physical ailments is an importand area for ___
Which of the following refers to the psychological approach in which psychologist might borrow or use techniques and theories from many different theoretical approaches to best understand and help their clients in therapy?
Which of the following is NOT one of the four goals of psychology?
Research is conducted for the purpose of testing hypotheses, solving a problem, and to
confirm findings of previous research
Which of the following is a disadvantage for the case study method of research?
the results of the case study may not generalize well to other people, even if they are similar
Of the following, which is the most important question to ask when evaluating a survey study?
was there bias in the selection of subjects?
A researcher is interested in testiong how study habits and test schores are related. What type of research method should be used?
A correlational study
A negative correlation indicates that the variables move in the ____
opposite direction
The more a person exercises, the more his or her physical strength improves. The relationship between exercise and strength will show a _____ correlation coefficient
Cause and effect are best discovered by means of the ___ method.
Subjects who participate in an experiment but do not recieve any treatment or manipulation are called the ______group.
The human nervous system has two major subdivisions that extend from the peripheral nervous system; What are they?
The autonomic and somatic nervous systems
Myelin sheaths serve the purpose of
insulating the axon to speed neural transmission
The somatic nervous system regulates
involuntary activities
A short while ago you were faced with a seriou, life-threatening danger. Now that the threat is gone, your body is attempting to slow down, relax, return to calm?
the parasympathetic nervous system
A structure low in the brain that controls vital life support functions such as breathing, heartbeat, blood pressure and many reflexive functions such as coughing or sneezing is the
Which brain structure is responsible for motivated behaviors, such as the behaviors influenced bye your need for food, water, and sex?
The hypothalamus
The ___ serves as a relay station for sensory information
If Inez started having problems with balance and coordinated movements, which of the following brain structures might be responsible?
Maria fell and hit the back of her head on the icy pavement in her driveway. She reported seeing "stars" for several minutes following her fall. Which of the following might have been responsible for this?
occipital lobe
Which of the following lobes of tghe brain was injured and resulted in Phineas Gage's stroy of a complete change in personality, difficulty walking, and an overall change in his demeanor?
the frontal lobe
The degree to which a particular function is controlled by one rather then the other hemisphere is referred to in the text as
lateralization of function
Which of the following methids of studying the brain is conducted by injection an individual with a radioactive substance so that the functioning and activity of the brain can be assessed?
Magnetic resonance imaging
Sensation involves
stimulation of a receptor by a stimulus
The process of trasforming the chemical, mechanical or light energy into neural activity is called
The minimum physical intensity of a stimulus that can be perceived by an observer 50% of the time is the
absolute threshold
A person living near an industrial plant producing foul-smelling smoke will not notice it after awhile because of
sensory adaptation
The___ is a muscular membrane that regulates the amount of light entering the eye
____ is defined as the focusing process in which the lens adjusts its shape in order to project a clar image onto the retina
The area of the retina where vision is the cleares is the
Color vision is provided by the
Where does transduction occur in the eye?
in the lens
also known as the Young-Helmholtz theory, the___ stated that the human eye contains red, green, and blue color receptors which form the basis for our perception of all colors
trichromatic theory
The correct order which a sound stimulates structures in the ear is
oval window
The sense of gustation is classified as a ____ sense.
Which of the following is not one of the primary skin sensations?
___is the rare condition in which sensations from one modality cause perceptions in another (such as seeing colors when hearing music)
Which of the following depth perception cues sends messages to the brain concerning the movement of the muscles around the eyes?
Which of the following structures of the ear is the most accurate location of transduction of mechanical stimulation of sound waves into neural impulses in the ear?
in the cochlea
When flying over a plowed field at 2,000 feet, the field may look perfectly smooth when in fact it has one-foot deep furrows. This illusion is because of the
texture gradient
When looking out the window of a moving car, telephone poles appear to "move" faster than houses off in the distance. This illustrates
Motion parallax
An elevated glass surface that has a checkerboard pattern just under half of the glass and nothing but a checkerboard floor painted under the other half of the glass is a device called ___. This device is used to test for ___.
visual cliff; the ability to perceive depth
Which of the following is most likely to be used to measure the brain wave activity that occurs during sleep?
sleep spindles have been shown to occur during which stage of sleep?
Stage 2
REM sleep is calledc paradoxical sleep because:
Although asleep, the breain waves are identical to those recorded when awake
a sleep disorder that may cause a person to awaken several hundred times a night in order to breathe is
sleep apnea
Which of the following is also known as a "sleep attack"?
Pavlov's dogs salivated when the sight or smell of meat was presented. meat in this case is reffered to as the:
unconditioned stimulus
Little Albert showed fear in response to a loud noise. Researchers then presented a lab rat every time they made the loud noise which frightened Little Albert. Eventually, the child became frightened by the sight of the lab rat. Which of the following terms best describes the rat, which caused the child to be afraid?
conditioned stimulus
After bing bitten by a brown dog, a little boy becomes quite upset in the presence of all furry brown animals, including rabbit and cats. this behavior illustrates
simulus generalization
Your son never throws temper tantrums when he is with you, yet he very easily resorts to one when your spouse is in charge. This is an example of.
Stimulus discrimination
Maria was convinced that she had "gotten over" her fear of spiders because she had not reacted with fearin response to seeing spiders in many months. However, she screamed and ran when she realized there was a large spiders in the tub whewn she went to take a bath. this best illustrates?
spontaneous recovery
Teaching a rat to run a maze requiers the systematic reinforcement of responses increasingly similar to the desired behavior which is called
According to the Law of Effect, behavior followed bye "satisfaction" or positive consequences will
be repeated
Reinforcers, whether they be positive or negative, have the same effect on behaviors, wich is to?
increase the probability that the behavior will be repeated
When asked why you attend class you report, "So that I don't fail the course!" What type of conditioning is this an example of?
Negative Reiforcement
Paul is told that his TV watching privileges heave been taken away because he didn't do his chores. What type of conditioning is tghis an example of?
Negative Punishment
Tonya brags to her friends that her parents have given her $20 for every "A" she made on her report card. "All I have to do is study a little more and I make money!" What type of conditioning are her parnets using to continue her study habits?
Positive Reinforcement
Suzanne radomly checks up on her employees several times throughout the day to praise them if they are working hard. None of the employees know when Suzanne will be checking up on them. Suzanne is using a ___ schedule of reinforcement.
In a ____ schedule, reinforcement is provided after a various number of correct reaponses have been made.
George has had depression since he was a teenager. He explains to his new therapist that he feels like he's wasting his time in therapy. He states that he has tried many times to "improve' his depression in the past, but that he had failed everytime. George cintinues to explain that he has just learned to accept his depression because there really isn't anything he can do about it. Luckily, the therapist is aware of the occurrence of ___ which describes George's attitude of giving up, and the therapist believes he can help George get past this problem and actually overcome his depression
learned helplessness
You may be able to repeat a series of words that you thought you did NOT hear because:
the words are stored in echoic memory
Debra and Dan have been married for thirty-eight years. They sit together on their anniversary reminiscing about their wedding day. "I remember like it was yesterday!? Debra says. Her memory for their wedding day so long ago is an example of _____ memory
Recall of specific facts, such as those you may have learned in this psychology class, is made possible by your ____ memory
Eidetic memory is synonymous with
photographic memory
Alice tells Laura that her locker combination is 38-24-36 Laura repeats the numbers over and over to herself so that she doesn't forget them. Laura's behavior is an example of:
maintenance rehearsal
Todd runs into Sarah, his former girlfriend. Oh no! He can't remember her bame and calls her Robin the name of his current girlfriend. Todd just experienced what type of interference?
If you rush out of the classroom today after turning in your test, and ask a fellow classmate what they answered for the last question, they will most likely remember that question because of the ___
recency effect
With the help of a travel agent, Ron plans a Caribbean cruise. The travel agent lists all of the prots of call in the cruise. Later, when Ron is telling a friend his plans, he can only remember the first stop on the tour. This is an example of :
primacy effect
Victims of organic amnesia who can recall old memories before the damage but cannot recall information processed after the damage are experiencing ____ amnesia.
People tend to remember better when they are in the same mood or have the smae emotions as when they first learned the material. This memory is
state-dependent memory
Remembering in detail the day your first child was born, including how you felt, who was present for the birth would represent ____ memory according to experts.
Repeatedly studying your Spanish vocabulary could cause the nerves stimulated by your studying to become more sensitive to that kind of information. This is an example of
long-term potentiation
You read in an article that "if you see a bear you are frightened because your heart is pounding, rather than your heart pounding because you are frightened" You recognize this statement as describing the
James-Lange Theory
The theory of emotion that states that we experience an emotion based upon our own subjective evaluation of a stimulus (deciding whether or not it is a threat) while at the same time considering the physiological reactions to the stimulus is called the ________.
Schacter-Singer theory
The fight- or flight reaction is characterized by a high level of activity of the _____ nervous system
The exhaustion stage of the general adaptation syndrom (GAS) is characterized by
a state of gatigue in which body tissues begin to show signs of wear and tear and susceptibility to disease
Heuristics are
rules of thumb that may lead to a quick solution to a problem
The tendency to think of a screwdriver only as a tool to turn screws instead of a weapon, ice pick, paperweight, scraper, or a dart is because of
functional fixedness
the tendency to seek out evidence that will confirm our hypothesis while overlooking contradictory evidence is known as
confirmation bias
Spearman's two-factor theory divides intelligence into
general intelligence and specific abilities
If Sternberg were a teacher, which of the following would he emphasize in his instruction?
The construction of problem-solving stategies for each student
Morphemes are the smallest units of ____ in a language
The rules for placing words in the prope order to form meaningful sentences is called
The controversy ove whether individual personalities and traits are a result of genetic endowment or of learning is called the
nature-nurture controversy
The orderly unfolding of certain patterns of behavior in accordance with genetic blueprints is called
The approximately nine months of prenatal development takes place in three stages in the following sequence:
germinal, embryonic, fetal
The point at which an unborn child "could" survive outside of the womb is called
The patterns of development normal to humans in which infants first gain control over areas that are closest to the center of their bodies
A three year old sees a skunk, but calls it a "kitty". This best illustrates
If a ball that a child is playing with rolls under a chair (out of sight), the five month old child probably will not look for it. Piaget believed that this is because the child
has not developed object permanence
For Piaget the concept of egocentrism referred to the
inability of young children to perceive the world from any perspective other than their own.
Michael demonstrates apprehension when his mother leaves the room bye cryin loudly. Later when she returns he behaves with hostility and indifference towards her. What type of attachment would Ainsworth claim he has developed?
Two-year old Kevin wants to do things himself, put on his own clothes, feed himself, even try to drive his father's car. he is in the stage Erikson refers to as
autonomy versus doubt
According to Erikson, Dustin faces the psychosocial task of intimacy. How old is Dustin?
Young adulthood?
gender identity refers to
whether individuals feel that they do not match their anatomical sex
In the movie, "Meet the Fockers," the main male character is repeatedly picked on for being a "male" nurse. The societal standards in our culture that question the appropriateness of some careers or behaviors for each sex are referred to as
gender roles