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117 Cards in this Set

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What is the definition of psychology?
Psychology is the science of behavior and mental processes.
What are the 7 types of psychology?
Developmental, Neuroscience and Physiological, experimental, personality, clinical and counseling, social, industrial and organizational
developmental psychology
Study human mental and physical growth from the prenatal period through childhood, adolescence, adulthood, and old age.
experimental psychology
Conduct research on basic psychological processes, including learning, memory, sensation, perception, cognition, motivation, and emotion.
personality psychology
Study the differences among individuals in such traits as anxiety, sociability, self-esteem, the need for achievement, and aggressiveness.
clinical and counseling
clinical-primarily diagnosis. cause, and treatment for psychological disorders. counseling-primarily concerned with normal problems of adjustments concerned with normal problems of adjustment that most of us face at some point.
social
Study how people influence one another.
industrial and organizational
Concerned with practical issues as selecting and training personnel, improving productivity and working conditions and the impact of computerization and automation on workers.
What are the 5 enduring issues in Psychology?
Person/Situation, Nature/Nurture, Stability/Change, Diversity/Universitality, and Mind/Body
To what extent is behavior caused by processes that occur inside versus the factors that are triggered by factors outside the person? (Fate or circumstance)
Person/Situation
Is the person we become a product of innate, inborn tendencies or a reflection of experiences and upbringing?
Nature/Nurture
Are the characteristics we develop in childhood more or less permanent and fixed or do we change in predictable and unpredictable ways over the course of our lives?
Stability/Change
To what extent is everyone in certain respects a)like another person b)like some other people c)like no other person?
Diversity/Universality
How are our mind and body connected?
Mind/Body
What are the 3 decades of Psychology called?
Science of the mind, Study of Behavior, and Cognitive Revolution
What is the definition of psychology?
Psychology is the science of behavior and mental processes.
What are the 7 types of psychology?
Developmental, Neuroscience and Physiological, experimental, personality, clinical and counseling, social, industrial and organizational
developmental psychology
Study human mental and physical growth from the prenatal period through childhood, adolescence, adulthood, and old age.
experimental psychology
Conduct research on basic psychological processes, including learning, memory, sensation, perception, cognition, motivation, and emotion.
personality psychology
Study the differences among individuals in such traits as anxiety, sociability, self-esteem, the need for achievement, and aggressiveness.
clinical and counseling
clinical-primarily diagnosis. cause, and treatment for psychological disorders. counseling-primarily concerned with normal problems of adjustments concerned with normal problems of adjustment that most of us face at some point.
social
Study how people influence one another.
industrial and organizational
Concerned with practical issues as selecting and training personnel, improving productivity and working conditions and the impact of computerization and automation on workers.
What are the 5 enduring issues in Psychology?
Person/Situation, Nature/Nurture, Stability/Change, Diversity/Universitality, and Mind/Body
To what extent is behavior caused by processes that occur inside versus the factors that are triggered by factors outside the person? (Fate or circumstance)
Person/Situation
Is the person we become a product of innate, inborn tendencies or a reflection of experiences and upbringing?
Nature/Nurture
Are the characteristics we develop in childhood more or less permanent and fixed or do we change in predictable and unpredictable ways over the course of our lives?
Stability/Change
To what extent is everyone in certain respects a)like another person b)like some other people c)like no other person?
Diversity/Universality
How are our mind and body connected?
Mind/Body
What are the 3 decades of Psychology called?
Science of the mind, Study of Behavior, and Cognitive Revolution
What is the definition of psychology?
Psychology is the science of behavior and mental processes.
What are the 7 types of psychology?
Developmental, Neuroscience and Physiological, experimental, personality, clinical and counseling, social, industrial and organizational
developmental psychology
Study human mental and physical growth from the prenatal period through childhood, adolescence, adulthood, and old age.
experimental psychology
Conduct research on basic psychological processes, including learning, memory, sensation, perception, cognition, motivation, and emotion.
personality psychology
Study the differences among individuals in such traits as anxiety, sociability, self-esteem, the need for achievement, and aggressiveness.
clinical and counseling
clinical-primarily diagnosis. cause, and treatment for psychological disorders. counseling-primarily concerned with normal problems of adjustments concerned with normal problems of adjustment that most of us face at some point.
social
Study how people influence one another.
industrial and organizational
Concerned with practical issues as selecting and training personnel, improving productivity and working conditions and the impact of computerization and automation on workers.
What are the 5 enduring issues in Psychology?
Person/Situation, Nature/Nurture, Stability/Change, Diversity/Universitality, and Mind/Body
To what extent is behavior caused by processes that occur inside versus the factors that are triggered by factors outside the person? (Fate or circumstance)
Person/Situation
Is the person we become a product of innate, inborn tendencies or a reflection of experiences and upbringing?
Nature/Nurture
Are the characteristics we develop in childhood more or less permanent and fixed or do we change in predictable and unpredictable ways over the course of our lives?
Stability/Change
To what extent is everyone in certain respects a)like another person b)like some other people c)like no other person?
Diversity/Universality
How are our mind and body connected?
Mind/Body
What are the 3 decades of Psychology called?
Science of the mind, Study of Behavior, and Cognitive Revolution
Scientific Method
An approach to knowledge that relies on collecting data, generating a theory to explain the data, producing testable hypotheses based on the theory, and testing those hypotheses empirically.
Theory
Systematic explanation of a phenomenon; it organizes known facts, allows us to predict new facts, and permits us to exercise a degree of control over the phenomenon.
Hypothesis
Specific, testable predictions derived from a theory.
Critical Thinking
Process of examining the information we have and then based on this inquiry making judgements and decisions.
Wilhelm Woundt
Founded the first psychological labratory for psychology at the University of Leipzig in Germany.(1879)Moved psychology out of the realm of philosophy into the world of science. In Science of the Mind era.(1)
Edward Bradford Titchener
Student of Woundt. Broke consciousness down into three elements:physical sensation, feelings and images. Developed Structuralism. In Science of the Mind era.(1)
Structuralism
School of psychology that stressed the basic units of experience and the combination in which they occur.
William James
Changed structuralism. Developed the functionalist theory. In Science of the Mind era. (1)
Functionalist theory
Theory of mental life and behavior that is concerned with how an organism uses its perceptual abilities to function in its environment.
Sigmund Freud
Medical Doctor who developed the psychodynamic theory. Best known and most controversial. Our behavior is governed by unconscious, conflicts, motives, and desires.In Science of the Mind era.(1)
Psychodynamic Theory
Personality theories contending that behavior results from psychological forces that interact within the individual, often outside conscious awareness.
John Watson
Argued that the whole idea of mental life was a superstition. Developed Behaviorism. Based much of his work on the experiments of Ivan Pavlov.In Study of Behaviors era. (2)
Behaviorism
School of psychology that studies only observable and measurable behavior.
BF Skinner
Added new element to behaviorism: Reinforcement. In Study of Behaviors era.(2)
Gestalt Psychology
Means whole or form. School of psychology how people perceive and experience objects as whole patterns.
Abraham Maslow
Developed humanistic psychology. In congitive era.(3)
Humanistic Psychology
School of psychology that emphasizes nonverbal experience and altered states of consciousness as a means of realizing full human potential.
Cognitive Revolution
General shift away from a limited focus on behavior toward a broad interest in mental processes.
Cognitive Psychology
Study of mental processes in which the broadest sense: thinking, feeling, learning, remembering, making decisions, and judgements.
Evolutionary Psychology
Focuses on the evolutionary origins of behavior patterns and mental processes, exploring what adaptive value they had and what functions they serve or served in our emergence as a distinct species.
Positive Psychology
An emerging field of psychologists that focuses on positive experiences including sugjective well-being, self determination, the relationship between positive emotions and physical health and the factors that allow individuals, communities, and societies to flourish
Christine Ladd
awarded doctoral 40 years after school due to doctorals not awarded to woman.Harvard. One of the countries leading theorists in color vision.
Mary Whiton Calkins
Head of Psychology Dept for Wessley College where she devloped influential theory of self psychology and important research for studying verbal learning.
Margaret Floy Washburn
First woman to receive PhD in psychology. Head of psychology dept at Vassar College.
Gender
The psychological and social meanings attached to being biologically male or female. Often used interchangeably with one's biological makeup or sex.
Gender Stereotypes
General beliefs about characteristics that are presumed to be typical of each sex.
Gender Roles
Behaviors that we expect each gender to engage in.
Feminist Theory
Feminist theories offer a wide variety of views on the social roles of women and men, the problems and rewards of those roles, and the prescriptions for changing them.
Sexual Orientation
Refers to the direction of one's sexual interest toward members of the same sex, the other sex, or both sexes.
Race
A subpopulation of a species, defined according to an identifiable characteristic. (geographic location, skin color, hair texture, genes, facial features)
Ethnicity
A common cultural heritage-including religion, language or ancestry-that is shared by a group of individuals.
Culture
The tangible goods and the values, attitudes, behaviors, and beliefs that are passed from one generation to another.
empirical evidence
Information derived from systematic, objective observation.
Naturalistic Observation
Research method involving the systematic study of animal or human behavior in natural settings rather than in a labratory.
Observer bias
Expectations or biases of the observer that might distort or influence his or her interpretation of what was actually observed.
Case Study
Intensive descriptions and analysis of a single individual or just a few individuals.
Survey Research
Research technique in which questionaires or interviews are administered to a selected group of people.
Correlation Research
Research technique based on the naturally occuring relationship between two or more variables.
Experimental Research
A research technique in which an investigator deliberately manipulates selected events or circumstances and then measures the effects of those manipulations on subsequent behavior.
Participants
Individuals whose reactions or responses are observed in an experiment.
Independent Variable
in an experiment the variable that is manipulated to test its effects on the other, dependent variables.
Dependent Variables
In an experiment, the variable that is measued to see how it is changed by manipulations in the independent variable.
Experimental Group
In a controlled experiment, the group subjected to a change in the independent variable.
Control Group
In a controlled experiment, the group not subjected to a change in the independent variable, used for comparison with the experimental group.
Experimental bias
Expectations by the experimenter that might influence the results of an experiment or its interpretation.
Sample
Selection of cases from a larger population.
Random Sample
Sample in which each potential participant has an equal chance of being selected.
Representative Sample
Sample carefully chosen so that the characteristics of the participants correspond closely to the characteristics of the larger population.
What does the APA code of ethics require researchers to obtain before informing consent from partipants and stipulates?
1)Participants must be informed of the nature of research in clearly understandable language.2)Must be documented.3)Risks, possible adverse effects, and limitations on confidentiality must be spelled out in advance.4)If participation is a condition of course credit, equitable alternative activities must be offered.5)Participants cannot be deceived about aspects of research that could affect their willingness to participatet6)Deception about the goal of the research can only be used when absolutely necessary to the integrity of the research.
Ethnicity
A common cultural heritage-including religion, language or ancestry-that is shared by a group of individuals.
Culture
The tangible goods and the values, attitudes, behaviors, and beliefs that are passed from one generation to another.
empirical evidence
Information derived from systematic, objective observation.
Naturalistic Observation
Research method involving the systematic study of animal or human behavior in natural settings rather than in a labratory.
Observer bias
Expectations or biases of the observer that might distort or influence his or her interpretation of what was actually observed.
Case Study
Intensive descriptions and analysis of a single individual or just a few individuals.
Survey Research
Research technique in which questionaires or interviews are administered to a selected group of people.
Correlation Research
Research technique based on the naturally occuring relationship between two or more variables.
Experimental Research
A research technique in which an investigator deliberately manipulates selected events or circumstances and then measures the effects of those manipulations on subsequent behavior.
Participants
Individuals whose reactions or responses are observed in an experiment.
Independent Variable
in an experiment the variable that is manipulated to test its effects on the other, dependent variables.
Dependent Variables
In an experiment, the variable that is measued to see how it is changed by manipulations in the independent variable.
Experimental Group
In a controlled experiment, the group subjected to a change in the independent variable.
Control Group
In a controlled experiment, the group not subjected to a change in the independent variable, used for comparison with the experimental group.
Experimental bias
Expectations by the experimenter that might influence the results of an experiment or its interpretation.
Sample
Selection of cases from a larger population.
Random Sample
Sample in which each potential patricipant has an equal chance of being selected.
Representative sample
Sample carefully chosen so that the characteristics of the particpants correspond closely to the characteristics of the larger population.
Humanistic
School of psychology and theoretical viewpoint on personality that generally emphasizes the inherent goodness of people, human potential, self-actualization, the self-concept and healthy personality development.
Sample
Selection of cases from a larger population.
Random Sample
Sample in which each potential patricipant has an equal chance of being selected.
Representative sample
Sample carefully chosen so that the characteristics of the particpants correspond closely to the characteristics of the larger population.
Humanistic
School of psychology and theoretical viewpoint on personality that generally emphasizes the inherent goodness of people, human potential, self-actualization, the self-concept and healthy personality development.