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54 Cards in this Set

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Out of what 2 disciplines did psychology develop?
Philosophy

Biology (Physiology)
Rene Descartes: What were his 4 major influences to scientific psychology?
1. Skepticism
2. Human defined by thinking
3. Body as a machine
4. Mind & Body both exist and interact
What is the mind-body problem?
How can two different realms of existence (physical and meta-physical) interact
What is empiricism?
Knowledge comes from experience through senses
What is Physiology?
How parts of the body function
Where and when did scientific psychology begin?
1879

Germany's University of 1879
Wilhelm Wundt: founder of psychology. What did he study?
He was seeking to measure "atoms of mind"

How long it takes to respond to a dropping ball.

Perhaps structuralism?
What is Introspection?
observation or examination of one's own mental and emotional state, mental processes, etc.; the act of looking within oneself.
What is Functionalism?
Focused on how mental and behavioral processes function - how they enable the organism to adapt, survive, and flourish.
What were the 2 influences on its development in the US?
Darwinism

Nature-nurture
Natural Selection
What did Behaviorists think psychology should and should not study? why?
Study behavior without reference to mental process. Observable behavior
How did WWII influence the growth of clinical psychology in the US?
Post traumatic Stress Disorder was happening and clinical psychology had to grow.
What is basic research?
pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base
What is applied research?
scientific study that aims to solve practical problems
Nature vs. Nurture
People that are born with ability and people that are trained into one
What is natural selection
of all things, those contributing to reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding gernerations
What are the three main levels of analysis?
Biological influence

Psychological

Social
What is the focus of each of these perspectives? (biopsychosocial)
Bio - genetic predispositions, genetic mutations, genes responding to environment

Psych - learned fear and behaviors, emotional responses, cognitive processing

Social - Presence of others, cultural and functional expectations, peer and other group influences
Neuroscience
How body and brain enable emotions, memories, and sensory experience
Evolutionary psych.
How the natural selection of traits promotes the perpetuation of one's genes
Behavior genetics
How much our genes and our environment influence our individual differences
Psychodynamic
How behavior springs from unconscious drives and conflicts
Behavior psych.
How we learn observable responses
Cognitive Psych.
How we encode, process, store, and retrieve information
Social-cultural psych.
How behaviors and thinking vary across situations and cultures
What are the differences among clinical psychologists, psychiatrists, and psychoanalysts?
Clinical - assesses and treats people with psychological disorders.

Psychiatrists - provide psychotherepy, are medical doctors licensed to prescribe drugs and otherwise treat physical causes of psychological disorders

Psychoanalysts - Psychologist that uses psycho dynamic ways. Freudians.
What are the most efficient ways to study?
SQ3R

Survey
Question
Read
Review
Reflect
What is hindsight bias?
Tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it
What is overconfidence?
the tendency to be more confident than correct - to overestimate the accuracy of one's beliefs and judgements
What are variables?
Things that can be changed.
Independent & dependent
Operational Definition
A statement of the procedures used to define research variables.
what does a theory do and how are they tested?
it predicts observations with an integrated set of principles. They are tested by setting a hypothesis, and doing an experiment
What is a hypothesis?
a testable prediction, often implied by a theory
What is case study?
Disadavantages
Advantages
observation technology in which 1 person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principal (for select population)

Advantages - gives full picture of a person. Can use for unusual cases. Can use to disprove general statements

Disadvantages - May not be the representative of the population. Highly subjective. Poor memories of the person and others
What is naturalistic study?
Disadvantages
Advantages
Observing and recording behavior in naturally-occuring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation

Adavantages - coming up with new ideas. Coming up with descriptive data. See if lab results apply to natural settings.

Disadvantages - difficult to determine which variables are important. Difficult not to intervene.
What is Survey?
Disadvantages
Advantages
a technique for ascertaining the self - reported attitudes or behaviors usually by questioning a representative, random sample of them

Advantages - can get a lot of information fast. Can track changes in responses over time. Can make predictions that are valid within certain limits

Disadvantages - self reports can be unreliable (memory loss, wishful thinking, don't know how they would act, intentional deception) cannot validly draw cause and effect conclusions.
What is False consensus effect?
The tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share our beliefs and behaviors.
What is a population?
All the cases in a group
What is random sample?
A sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion
What is correlation?
A statistical measure of relationship

(further away from 0, stronger the correlation and better predictive power.)

correlation doesn't prove causation. It indicates possiblity
What are illusory correlations?
The perception of a relationship where none exists.

(superstition)
What is a scatterplot?
A graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of two variables. The slope of the points suggests the direction of the relationship between the two variables.
What is an independent variable?
the experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied.
What is dependent variable?
The outcome factor; the variable that may change in reponse to manipulations of the independent variable.
What is experimental condition?
The condition of an experiment that exposes participants to the treatment, that is, to one version of the independent variable.
What is control condition?
The condition of an experiment that contrasts with the experimental condition and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment
What is placebo effect?
Results caused by self expectation.
What is Placebo?
Inert substitute that has medicinal value because of a person's belief in the drug
What is an experimentor bias?
Researcher's expectation affect outcome.
What is a double-blind study?
Study where both participants and the research staff are blinded about whether the participants received the treatment or the placebo.

Advantage - can validly draw cause and effect conclusions.

Disadvantage - often expensive, time consuming, and can be artificial
What is statiscal significane?
A statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance.
What is a peer-reviews journal?
A periodical that uses researchers to judge whether another researcher's work is worth publishing.
What are 4 basic 1992 APA guidelines for research ethics?
1. Participants must give their informed consent.

2. Investigators must protect participants from harm or discomfort.

3. Information about participants must be treated confidentially

4. The research should be explained to the participants afterward.
What percentage of psychological research uses animals as subjects?
7%