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218 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
science of behavior and mental processes
mental processes
ex: remembering & thinking.
These can be directly observed
cognitive perspective

interneal or external?
explain cognitive perspective
emphasizes on how our mental processes work & impact behavior
biological perspective

internal or external?
explain biological perspective
views our physological harware as major determinents of behavior & mental processes
what does the biological perspective use :
brain & nervous system
DEPRESION : example of cognitive would be?
if someone had internal feelings that the things they did controlled a setback in thier life they would feel poorly about themselves - if they realized other aspects controlled their set backs then they would not feel so bad about themselves
DEPRESION : example of biological would be?
chemical defiency in ones nervous system (nuerotransmitters)
behavioral is
internal or external?
sociocultral is
internal or external?
Behavioral has 2 conditions..

what are they?
classical & operant
explain classical behavioral conditioning
applying reflexive response to a new object.
aka Pavolian
example of classical/pavolian conditioning
ringing of bell and dog's feeding time.
explain opertant conditioning
changing behavior as a result of consequences
aka Skinnerian
example of operant/skinnerian conditioning
person wants to exercise more if they get good compliments like "you look good" or will stop working out if someone says "you look like a sweaty pig"
how other ppl & cultural context impact behavior mental processes
example of sociocultral
1964, Kitty Genovese was brutally attacked & murdered..many heard her screams but nobody called for help. why? this would be a sociocultral concern
descriptive method
includes observational
case studies
and survery research
case studies are used in what?
Clinical settings to gather info. that will help treatment of patient
what does case studies do?
studies individual in depth over time to learn as much as possible
survey researches use what?
quiestionares& interviews to collect info about behavior, beliefs & attitudes
what makes survery research misleading?
wording, order, & structure of questions
correlational methods
2 variables are measured to determine if they are related
a variable is..
any factor that can take on more than one value
correlation coefficient
statistic that shows the type & strength btwn 2 variables
what will the correlation coefficient value range from?
-1.0 to +1.0
sign (- or +) tells what of the coefficient?
if relationship is postive or negative
positive correlation indicates-
direct relationship
example of positive correlation :
SAT scores & GPA of first yr in college
persons height/weight
negative correlations indicates -
inverse relationship
example of negative correlation
time you watch tv & your school grade
mountain elevation & temp.
3rd Varaible Prob. occurs when
..a 3rd, unmeasured varaible is responsible for the relationship observed between two measured varaibles
experimental key aspect
researcher controls the exper. setting
control allows researcher to make...
cause & effect statements about results
independent varaible
hypothesized cause, whcih experimentor manipulates
dependent varaible
hypothesized effect
group exposed to independent variable
experimental group
group not exposed
control group
sometimes a control group that does not know they are the control group is needed..this is called...
placebo group
group thinks they are recieving treatment but...
they are really not
placebo is..
a substance that has no effect
when a substance that has no effect is given this is called the
placebo effect
Double Blind Procedure
neither participants or experimentors know who is who and who got placebo ir treatment
descriptive stats used to..
describe data of research
descriptive also measures central tendency to
summerize data in a single digit
3 measures of desc.
mean, mode, median
mean is the
most commonly used to anaylize data
measures of varablity
designed to provide ideaof how scattered a set of scores tend to be
2 measures of varability is
range & standard deviation
range is the
difference btwn highest and lowest in scores
standard deviation is
average extent to which the scores vary from mean of the distribution
Normal distributions
% of scores falling w/ a certain # of deviation
nuerons are responsible for
information transmission throughout the nervous system
gilial cells support
they does this in 3 ways
1. ) disposing waste
2. ) keeping chemical environment stable
3. ) insulation them
~structure of neuron~
recieve info from other nuerons
cell body
contains nucleus of cell & other systems to keep cell alive
-decides what the dedrites pass
what is passed to the cell body from dendrites
the info in which the dendrite recieved
transmits messages through the nueron
axon terminals
at the end of the axon, sends messages to another nueron
communications within a nureon is
communication betwn a nueron is
dedrites can be excitatory or inhibitory.. what is extitatory?
generating electrical pulses
not generating electrial pulses
intensity of stimulation is
encoded by quantity of nuerons generating impulses & number of impulses a second
myelin sheath
insulating layer of fatty, white substance
what does the myelin sheath allow?
electrical messages to be transmitted faster with the nueron
what does the myelin sheath encase?
axon terminals contain sacs of
nuerotransmitters are ..
chemicals that specialize in transmitting info
nuerotransmitters travel through the syn, gap which is..
small space betwn axon terminals of the neuron
who do brain scans work?
nuerons require oxygen & other nutrients such as blood sugar
Acetylcholine (ACH)
invloved in both learning and memory & muscle movement
impacts arousals & mood states, thought processes & phyiscal movement
Serotonin & norepineprine
nuerotrans. involved in levels of arousal & mood
major role in mood disorder & depression
main inhibitory in nervous system
group of neurontrans. that are involved in pain perception & result
types of nuerons-
exists only in central nervous system
sensory nuerons
carry info to nervous system from scensory recetors in the eyes, muscles, & glands
motor neurons
canrry movement commands from the central nervous system to the rest of the body
central nervous system consists of ...
spinal cord & brain
spinal cords 2 functions are:
conduct for incoming sensory data & outgoing movement commands &&
provides for spinal reflections
brain is control center for
entire nervous system
peripheral nervous system
gathers info abot external environemnt & bodys internal environment for the brain through sensory nuerons
the peripheral nervous system also serves as a conduit for
brain commands to the rest of body through motor nuerons
p.ner. system consists of 2 parts
somatic (or sketal) & autonomic nerv
somatic does what?
carries input from sensory receptors to the CNS
it also relys commands to ..
sketal muscles
autonomic ner. systm
regulates our internal environment & consists of 2 parts
autonomic 2 parts are:
sympathetic & parasympathetic
in control where we are very aroused & prepares us for defensive action
ex of sympthetic
running away or fighting
in control when aroused state ends to return to our body to normal resting state
symp vs. parasymp--

dialate - contract
rises - slows down
endocrine system works w/ what system when responding to stress
what does endocrine system play role in?
basic behaviors & bodily functions
examples of these would be?
sex, eating, reproduction, metabolism
endocrine glands secrete
endocrine glands controlled by the
hypothalmus controls most influenctial gland
pituitary gland
pituitary gland releases
horomones whcih help in growth & that direct other glands to release their hormone
complex osychological state that involves 3 compenents
3 compenets of emotion are:
physical -->
state of arousal triggered by the autonamic nerv. sytms
behavorial -->
outward expersion..
i.e. facial movements, gestures
cognitive -->
apprasial of situation to determine which emotion we are experincing & how intensely
physical (fight or flight) includes
heart rate up, breathing up, blood pressure surges, start sweating
behavioral produces what kind of nuerons?
facial expersions do what?
sends messages to brain
brain determines which what we are experincing?
apprasial of cognitive also determines
which emotion we are experincing
James-Lange Theory
psycological arousal is a response to a stimulus & then interpretted into emotion
Cannon-Bard Theory
arousal patterns for diff. emo. are 2 psychologically alike to determine which emo. is being experinced
ANS produces
brain produeces
emo. feeling
schactor-singer 2 factor theory contends 2 important determinate of emo. -
pyshcology & cognitive
intesity of the emo.
allows us to identify emo.
intergrating theories-
LeDoux contends that
there are different brain systems for diff. emo.
an example of this is:
what may require higher processing?
love or guilt
central core of brain ---
regulates autonamic fuctions like heartbeat
reticular formation
controls arousal & awareness
motor coordination & balance
relays sensory information from spinal cord to appropriate area in the CEREBEAL CORTEX
Limbic system
plays role in our survial, memory & emo.
controls pituitary gland & nerv. system
formationi of memories
regulating emotion
cerebral cortex is the most improtant..
structure of the brain
what processes occur in the cerebral cortx
perception, memory making, language decsion making
corpus callesum connects
the two hemispehres of the brain
Frontal Lobe
in front & above
parietal lobe
located behind & above
temporal love
beneath lateral fissure
occipital lobe
lower back of each hemi.
motor cortex located-
frontal strip of cortex, directly in front of central fissure
motor cortx allows
us to move different parts of our body
somatosensory cortex located
partial lobe of cortex, directly behind central fissure ini each hemi.
somatosensory is where
sensations are processed
visual cortex located
back lobe of occiptal
auiditory cortx located
in temporal lobes
association cortex
contains 70% of non mentioned areas
assocition cortex is where
higher level processing such as decsion making occurs
broad area located
left hemi. , temoral lobe
broads area responsible for
fluent speech production
damaged ppl can still...
understand speech but can not generate it
Wernick's area located`
left temporal lobe
wernick's area is resposible for
comprehension of speech and reading
when the corpus callobum has been cut
split brain ppl cannot transfer bwtn hemispheres
split brained ppl can only identify stuff...
left hemi. deals w/
language, math & logic, analytical
spatial perception, solving, drawing, face recognition
persons awareness of his inner thinking & feeling as well as immidiate surrondings
consciousness is both
internal & external
electronical readings of brain actiivty during sleep allow us to measure..
different stages of sleep
5 stages determined by
stage 1 lasts...
stage 2 last
2o min
stage 2 info
periodic burst of rapid activity called SLEEP SPINDLES
older ppl contain less
this is why
they have more interuppted sleep
stage 3 is
very brief
stage 4 is considered
deep sleep
stage 4/deep sleep charaterized by..
delta waves are
large, slow waves
in deep sleep w/ nerv . sytm dominates?
near end of 1st period of sleep, what satges return?
3 &2
REM sleep chractierized by
rapid waves
this is simliar to stage
REM also known as
paradoxial bc muscles are relaxed
these 5 stages repeat every
90 min
which stages get shorter each cycle
3 & 4 !
what indicates the beginnign of dreams
REM sleep rebound effect
a significant increase in proportional of REM sleep following deprivation of rem sleep
sleep deprivation results in
impaired concentration & general bodily feeling of weakness & discomfort
activation-syntheseis hypothesis
contends dreams are merely the brains attempt to make sense of random activity w/out rational interpretation of the frontal lobe
do we sense and percieve the world as it really is?
CHAPTER 3 !!!!!!!
detection ?
concerned w/ limits on our ability to detect very faint signals
how intense does light have to be to see it
difference ?
concerned w/ limits on our detection ability but in this case was our ability to detect very small differences btwn stimuli
example :
smalleste difference in brightness
detection ? -
absolute thresehold
minimum amount of energy in a sensory stimulus that is detected 50% of time
signal detection theory
examine a person's detection of very faint sensory stimuli
difference thresehold
aka noticable difference/ betwn 2 stimuli that is deteched 50% of the time
Weber's Law
for each type of sensory judgement, the different threshold is a constant fraction
.05 change is abt what percetage difference?
wavelength refers to what?
distance ub ibe cycle of the wave from one crest to the next
humans can see wavelengths from....
400 to 700 nanometers
amount of engery in a wave, it's intesity, which is the heigth of the wave it's crest
frequency determines
pitch in sound
convesion of sensory stimulation requires
clear covering of the eye throug whcih light rays pass
light rays further filtered by the
then travels through the
beforing reaching the
retina which is at th eback of the eye
accomidates the light waves from objects or different distances directly on the retina
light senstive layer of the eye
retina has 3 layers of cells :
ganglion cell, bipolar, and recepotr cells.
receptor cells...
contain the visual reception cells, rods & cones
how many rods are responsible for seeinig in dim light for peripheral vision?
aprox. 120million
aprox how many cones are resposible for seeing in a right like
5 million
after being processed though the retina, patterns of neutral impulses are carried though the...
bipolar cells
bioploar cells do what...
bundle together to make optic nerve
why do we have blind spots?
optic nerve leaves the eye where there are no receptor cells
light waves from the left visual field go to the ...
right half of each eye
trichromatic theory
there are 3 types of cones, which correspon aprox to blue, green, & red
opponent-process theory
assumes that there are 3 diff. kinds of color systems that help us see color
where are the opponent-process theory systems located?
post receptor level of processing
3 types of cell systems are?
red-green, blue-yellow, as well as black-white (to detect brightness)
both theories are
fovea is
a tiny pit in the center of the retina
complimentary color pairs are
red-green & blue-yellow