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103 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
How many people report feeling stressed?
4 out of 10
Stressor
stimulus that causes stress
Stress Reaction
emotional and physical responses
Stress
the process by which we percieve and respond to certain events, called stressors, that we appraise as threatening or challenging
Stress can...
- mobilize the immune system from fending off infections and healing wounds

- arouses and motivates us to conquer problems

- harm us by raising the risk of chronic disease
Walter Cannon
confirmed that stress reponse is part of a unified mind-body system
Stress reponse system
extreme cold, lack of oxygen, nad emotion-arousing incidents triggers outpouring of stress hormones: epinephrine and norepinephrine from adrenal glands

Prepares the body for fight or flight
Sympathetic Nervous System
increases heart rate, respiration, diverts blood from digestion to skeletal muscles, dull pains, and releases sugar and fat from body stores
Alternative to fight or flight
withdraw: pull back, conserve energy
General Adaption Syndrome (GAS)
Seyle's concept of the body's adaptive response to stress in three stages:

1.) Alarm
2.) Resistance
3.) Exhaustion
Alarm
sudden activation of the sympathetic nervous system: heart rate increases, blood diverted to skeletal muscles, faintness of shock

Shrunken Hippocampus is caused by...
sustained child abuse, combat, or an endocrine disease
Stressful Life Events
Catastrophes: unpredictable large-scale events that nearly everyone appraises as threatening

b. Significant life changes: Life transitions and insecurities: commonly felt during young adulthood

Daily hassles: Negative events, daily annoyances, cell-phone talkers
Coronary Heart Disease
the clogging of the vessels that nourish the heart muscle; the leading cause of death in many developed countries

caused by elevated blood pressure (smoking, obesity, high fat diet, physical inactivity, behavioral and psychological factors)
Type A
Friedman and Rosenman's term for competitive, hard driving, impatient, verbally aggressive, and anger-prone people
Type B
Friedman and Rosenman’s term for easygoing, relaxed people
Pessimist are more likely to ______ than optimists
get heart disease
Psychophysiological Illness
“mind body” illness; any stress-related physical illness, such as hypertension and some headaches. Distinct from hypochondriasis- misinterpreting normal physical sensations as symptoms of a disease.
Lymphocytes
two type of white blood cells that are a part of the body’s immune system: B lymphocytes form in the bone marrow and release antibodies that fight bacterial infections: T lymphocytes form in the thymus and other lymphatic tissue and attack cancer cells, viruses, and foreign substances
Macrophage
identifies, pursues, and ingests harmful invaders
Immunre system can fail by overreacting. What are somethings that can happen?
attacking its own tissues causing arthritis or an allergic reaction; or it can be dormant and cause viruses or cancer cells to multiply
Aids
the number one immune disorder

an acquired immune deficiency syndrome caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
Carcinogens
the thing scientists put in rodents to test the cause of cancer
People who suffer with Depression, helplessness, or bereavement for a long period of time are....
more at risk for cancer
T or F

5.5% more risk for colon cancer in the workplace
True
Does stress grow cancer or stimulate growth?
It stimulates growth
Rat and Saccharin
sweetened water experiment paired with injections of a drug that suppresses immune functioning
Coping
alleviating stress using emotional, cognitive, or behavioral mehods
Problem Focused Coping
attempting to alleviate stress directly- by changing the stressor or the way we interact with that stressor: feel a sense of control over the situation and the ability to change it
Emotion-focused coping
attempting to alleviate stress by avoiding or ignoring a stressor and attending to emotional needs related to one’s stress reaction: when we believe we can’t change a situation
Uncontrollable threats trigger _________.
the strongest stress response
Who tends to decline faster and die sooner?
Elderly residents who have little percieved control over their activities
Losing control provokes ______.
An outpouring of stress hormones
T or F

People who have hope, live longer
True
Those who seek and utilize humor do what.
They benifit
Social Support
feeling liked, affirmed, and encouraged by intimate friends

promotes not only happiness but also health
Can relationships be stressful?
Yes
What coping stratigies help with personal traumas
Writing about in a diary
Aerobic Exercise
Sustained exercise that increases heart and lung fitness; may also alleviate depression and anxiety
Do people who excersize frequently feel happy?
Yes they do
What does excersizing do, besides relieving stress.
Strengthens heart, increases blood flow, keeps blood vessels open, lowers blood pressure
Biofeedback
a system for electronically recording, amplifying, and feeding back information regarding a subtle physiological state, such as blood pressure or muscle tension
Relaxation...what is it?
breathing exercises and relaxing muscles
Spirituality
spiritual healing over antibiotics
What was belonging to a religious collective associated with?
A strong protective effect
The risks of smoking
12 minutes of life lost when you smoke

is a pediatriac disease

stimulates central nervous system to release neurotransmitters that calm anxiety and irritability

stimulates dopamine and opiod release
Meditation
a relaxation reponse that decreases blood pressure, heart rate, oxygen consumption, and raises fingertip temperature
Quitting smoking can...
cause nicotine-withdrawl symptoms such as craving, insomnia, anxiety, and irritability
Who is targeted to quit smoking
Youth; it is not likely to start smoking in mid-adulthood
Do you get better results when quitting smoking with a partner or group, or quitting solo?
Quitting with a partner or group
Fat
an ideal form of stored body energy

a high calorie fuel reserve to carry the body through periods when food is scarce
What does obesity increase the risk of?
of diabetes, high blood pressure, heart disease, gallstones, arthritis, and certain types of cancer
Can being obese be socially toxic.
Yes it can
What are the determinants of body fat?
the size and number of fat cells. An obese person’s cells will swell to two to three times the normal size, and divided to make more cells divide resulting in more cells
What do protien leptins do?
Tells the body it is full: good weight loss use
Social Psychology
the scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another
Attribution theory
suggests how we explain someone’s behavior- by crediting either the situation or the person’s deposition
(either external or inernal situations)
Fundamental attribution error
the tendency for observers, when analyzing another’s behavior, to underestimate the impact of personal disposition
Dispotitional attribution
Our side over another
Situational attribution
considers the possible reasons for the situation. Tends to look at the other side also
Attitude
feelings, often based on our beliefs, that predispose us to respond in a particular way to objects, people, and events
What does strong social pressures weaken?
the attitude-behavior connection

(ie: Democrats voted for the war despite their private reservations)
What do attitudes follow
Behavior
Foot in the door phenomenon
the tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request
What do moral actions strengthen
Moral convictions
Role-Playing
when you adopt a new role you strive to follow the social prescriptions
Cognitive dissonance
Relief from tension theory: we act to reduce the discomfort (dissonance) we feel when two of our thoughts (cognitions) are inconsistent. For example, when our awareness of our attitudes and of our actions clash, we can reduce the resulting dissonance by changing our attitudes
What is the correlation between dissonance and consistency?
The more dissonance we feel, the more motivated we are to find consistency, such as changing our attitudes to help justify the act
T or F
Behavior is contagious.
True
Chameleon effect
we are natural mimics, copying other people’s expressions, postures, and voice tones
Mood linkage
sharing up and down moods: hearing someone read a neutral text in a mood sets the mood for the audience
Conformity
adjusting one’s behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard
Normative Social Influence
influence resulting from a person’s desire to gain approval or avoid disapproval
Informational social influence
influence resulting from one’s willingness to accept other’s opinions about reality
Milgram experiement
if you ask a person a question and they get it wrong, you have to shock them with 15 volts. Every question that is answered incorrectly, they are shocked more. The majority obeyed
Social facilitation
stronger responses on simple or well-learned tasks in the presence of others
We become ________ when others observe us.
Aroused
Pool table example
2 guys were playing pool, and people were observing them. The man who was doing good, did better while being observed, and the man doing bad, did worse while being observed
Social Loafing
the tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining a common goal than when individually accountable
If you feel less accountable in groups, what happens?
You worry less about what people think
Deindividuation
the loss of self-awareness and self-restraint occurring in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity
Group Polarization
the enhancement of a group’s prevailing inclinations through discussion within the group
Groupthink
the mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision-making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives
Social control (the power of situation) and personal control (the power of the individual)
When feeling pressured we may do the opposite of what is expected

Minority influence: the power of one or two individuals to sway majorities
Prejudice
an unjustifiable (and usually negative) attitude toward a group and its members. Prejudice generally involves stereotyped beliefs, negative feelings, and a predisposition to discriminatory action
Stereotype
a generalized (sometimes accurate but often over generalized) belief about a group of people
Discrimination
unjustifiable negative behavior toward a group or its members
In-group
“Us” – people with whom one shares a common identity
Out group
“Them” – those perceived as different or apart from one’s ingroup
Ingroup bias
the tendency to favor one’s own group
Scapegoat theory
the theory that prejudice offers an outlet for anger by providing someone to blame
Agression
any physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt or destroy
Just-world phenomemon
the tendency of people to believe the world is just and that people therefore get what they deserve and deserve what they get
Frustration-aggression principle
the principle that frustration- the blocking of an attempt to achieve some goal- creates anger, which can generate aggression
Conflict
a perceived incompatibility of actions, goals, or ideas
Social trap
a situation in which the conflicting parties, by each rationally pursuing their self-interest, become caught in mutually destructive behavior
Mere-exposure effect
the phenomenon that repeated exposure to novel stimuli increases liking them
Passionate Love
an aroused state of intense positive absorption in another, usually present at the beginning of a love relationship
Companionate Love
the deep affectionate attachment we feel for those with whom our lives are intertwined
Equity
a condition in which people receive from a relationship in proportion to what they give it
Self Disclosure
revealing intimate aspects of oneself to others
Resistance
Ready to fight the challenge. Tempature, blood pressure, and respiration remain high to outpouring of hormones
Exhaustion
Depleted adrenal horomone reserves iin the body. More vulnerable to illness or even collapse and death