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59 Cards in this Set

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What are some physical characteristics of middle childhood?
The CNS is at adult weight.
The permanent teeth grow in.
There is continued growth in bone and muscle
Girls have a growth spurt at age 10/11.
What percentage of adolescents are diagnosed with mental illness?
15%
learning disorders
eating disorders
depression
What is a psychoanalytic reason for high risk behavior?
Insecurity associated with the transition to adulthood.
Where do early adults get their goals from?
Identity work
Family
Society
What stage is adolescence according to Piaget?
Formal Operations
What identity status has the best relationships?
Identity Achievement
What is minor depression called?
Dysthmia
What is a cognitive reason for risk taking?
Adolescents look at things from a narrow perspective of the present.
What is Piagets 3rd cognitive stage?
Concrete Operations or Concrete Reasoning.
What are 3 psychosocial developments in middle childhood?
School begins
Peer group connections are made
Children learn valuable skills
What test is given in middle childhood to find out if a child is on track developmentally?
Early Prevention of School Failure.
EPSF
What changes have created this long stage of adolescence in modern times?
Child labor laws and laws that keep children in school
What are some features of major depression?
Sad/hopeless for 1-2 weeks
Sleep and appetite disturbances
Low concentration
Low interest in sex/relationships
Memory problems
Negative thoughts
What is a social learning reason for risk taking?
The behavior may be learned from adults or peers.
What identity status has the most distant relationships?
Identity confusion
What are 2 eating disorders?
Anorexia
Bulemia
What is a sociocultural reason for risk taking?
Adolescents see it in the media - television, movies, magazines.
What is the psychological purpose of adolescence?
A time to form identity.
What identity status has the best work adjustment?
Identity Achievement
What percent of adolescents are rebellious?
20%
What is a major characteristics of early adulthood?
There are no more developmental milestones.
What are 3 cognitive changes that take place in middle childhood?
Sense of spatial relations
Categorical thinking improves
Cause and effect become obvious
What 3 things influence a child's success or failure at school?
Parent involvement-help, encouragement, parent/teacher alliance, rewards
School issues-learning materials, safety, class size
Peers - groups with similar interests
What did Erikson say adolescence is?
Identity formation
What identity status has the worst work adjustment?
Identity confusion
What are Baumrinds 3 styles of parenting?
Authoritarian-little warmth, need to control, results in rebellion
Permissive-has warmth, relies on negotiation
Authoritative-discipline varies,has warmth.
In early adulthood, people see their future in terms of ...
Personal Social Clock or
Future Time Perspective
What is Erikson's idea of middle childhood?
Industry vs. Inferiority
The self concept is developed
What are the 3 issues that must be resolved to form an identity.
Sexual orientation
Career direction
World view and values
Name Marcia's 4 Identity Statuses.
Ident. achievement-crisis,committment
Ident. foreclosure-no crisis,committment
Ident. moratorium-crisis,no committment
Ident. confusion-no crisis,no commitment
What did Freud say about adolescents?
They are unstable
What age is high risk behavior most prevalent?
16-24
Adulthood is...
making life what you want it to be.
What is a definition for adolescence?
A bridge from childhood to adolescence.
Why are there many parent/child conflicts in adolescents according to Freud?
Because of hormonal changes.
What is a biological reason for risk taking?
High MAO levels
Mentally healthier early adults have this...
Future plans
What gains in physical growth and motor development occur during middle childhood?
Growth is slower than in infant & early childhood
Children grow 1-3" & gain 5-8lbs.
Late in mid. childhood, girls have growth spurt and gain 10lb. per year.
How is school-age children's thinking & moral reasoning different from that of younger children?
Spatial thinking, Categorization,
Transition inference, Class inclusion,
Inductive reasoning, deductive reasoning, conservation, numbers & math
Explain the important influences on children's school achievement
Type of kindergarten attended
Number of parents in home
Amount on interest, attention, participation in school
Home environment
Socioeconomic status
How do school-age children develop a realistic self-concept?
They have the cognitive ability to form representational systems. They look at more than 1 dimension of themself. They learn valuable skills for productive work.
What impact does family structure have on children's development?
The more stable family members a child grows up with the more emotionally stable the child will be.
What physical changes do adolescents experience and how do these changes affect them psychologically?
Breasts, pubic hair, underarm hair, body growth, menarche, increase in sweat and oil glands, growth of testes and scrotal sac, penis and prostrate gland, change in voice.
Early boys-good, Early girls-bad
How does adolescents' thinking differ from that of younger children?
Adolescents can think abstractly-younger can't.
Adolescents are capable of hypothetical deductive reasoning - younger can't.
What influences success in secondary school, and why do some students drop out?
Belief in self, parental involvement, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, quality of schooling. Drop out because they are not actively engaged in school.
How do adolescents form an identity?
They modify and synthesize earlier identifications into a new psychological structure greater than the sum of its parts. They must solve choice of occupation, sexual identity, adoption of values and world views.
How common are sexually transmitted diseases and teenage pregnancy, and what are the usual outcomes?
STD's - 1 out of 4 Americans
Teen Preg - 1 out of 10 girls
STD's:many diseases and sometimes death
Preg:1/2 have abortions, 1/7 miscarry
How typical is adolescent rebellion?
Fewer than 1 in 5 teenagers are involved in adolescent rebellion.
Summarize major research findings regarding parent-adolescent relationships
adolescent less time with parents
parents want adol. to be independent
Parents argue with adolescents
Authoritative parenting works best
2 parents are advantage during adol.
Economic stress in parents - negative.
What is distinctive about adult thought and intelligence?
Postformal thought. It is applied in social situations and involves the ability to shift between abstract reasoning and practical considerations.
How do higher education and work affect cognitive development?
college kids:show better reasoning abilities.
Perry: college kids thinking goes from rigidity to flexibility to freely chosen committments.
complex work-intellectual leisure activities
Does personality change during adulthood, and if so how?
Costa/McCrae-5 Factor Model-very little
Block-ego-resiliance,ego-control-same
Normative change occurs with crisis.
Name the five factors of Costa and McCrae
Neuroticism
Extroversion
Openness to Experience
Conscientiousness
Agreeableness
Freuds components of personality
Superego-conscience
Ego-master control
Id-immediate gratification
What are Vailants four coping styles?
Mature-use humor, constructive
Immature-physical problems
Psychotic-dillusions, halucinations
Neurotic-depression, anxiety
Neugarten-people grow in ego strength over time
capacity to hold yourself together under everyday stress
Erikson about Early Adulthood
Intimacy vs. Isolation
Erikson's model (1950's-60's)about early adulthood.
Identity formation is basis for intimacy.
Gilligan's idea about early adulthood (1970's-80's)
Women may use intimacy to form identity.