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86 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
a standard of poverty based on a minimum level of substinence
a standard of poverty based on a minimum level of substinence
a social position attained by a person largely through his or her own efforts
achieved status
a social position assigned to a person by society without regard for the person's unique talents or characterisitics
ascribed status
Karl marx's term for the capitalist class, the owners of the means of production
bourgeoisie
an economic system in which the means of production are held largely in private hands, and the main incentive for economic activity is the accumulation of profits
capitalism
a hereditary rank, usually religiously dictated, that tends to be fixed and immobile
caste
a term used by max weber to refer to a group of people who have a similar level of wealth and income
class
in Karl marx's veiw, a subjective awareness of common vested interests and the need for collective political action to bring about social order
class consciousness
a social ranking based primarily on economic position in which achieved characteristics can influence social mobility
class system
a social system in which there is little or no possibility of individual mobility
closed system
the maintenance of political, social, economic, and cultural domination over a people by a foreign power for an extended period
colonialism
an approach to global stratification that contends that industrialized nations exploit developing countries for their own gain
dependency theory
a system of stratification under which peasants were required to work land leased to them by nobles in exchange for military protection and other services.also known as feudalism.
estate system
the reputation that a specific person has earned with an occupation
esteem
a term used by karl marx to describe an attitude held by members of a class that does not accurately reflect their objective position
false consciousness
a trend in which women constitute an increasing proportion of the poor people of the US
feminization of poverty
the worldwide integration of government policies, cultures, social movements, and financial markets through trade and the exchange of ideas
globalization
the movement of an individual from one social position to another of the some rank
horizontal mobility
salaries and wages
income
changes in the social position of children relative to their parents
intergenerational mobility
changes in a person's social position within his or her adult life
intragenerational mobility
max weber's term for people's opportunities to provide themselves with material goods, positive living condition, and favorable conditions
life chances
the far-reaching process by which developing nations move from traditional or less developed institutions to those characteristics of more developed societies
modernization
a functionalist approach that proposes that modernization and development will gradually improve the lives op people in developing nations
modernization theory
commercial organization that is headquartered in one country but does business throughout the world
multinational corporation
continuing dependence of former colonies on foreign countries
neocolonialism
a technique for measuring social class that assigns individuals to classes on the basis of criteria such as occupation, education, income, and place of residence
objective method
a social system in which the position of each individual is influenced by his or her achieved status
open system
the ability to exercise one's will over others
power
the respect and admiration that an occupation holds in a society
prestige
Karl marx's term for the working class in a capitalist society
proletariat
a floating standard of deprivation by which people at the bottom of a society, whatever their lifestyles, are judged to be disadvantaged in comparison with the nations as a whole
relative property
a system of enforced servitude in which some people are owned by other people
slavery
a condition in which members of a society have different amounts of wealth, prestige, or, power
social inequality
the movement of individuals or groups from one position of a society's stratification system to another
social mobility
a term used by max weber to refer to people who have the same prestige lifestyle, independent of their class positions
status group
the structured ranking of entire groups of people that perpetuates unequal economic rewards and power in a society
stratification
the movement of a person from one social position to another of a different rank
vertical mobility
an exclusive term encompassing all of a person's material assets, including land, stocks, and other types of property
wealth
Immanuel Wallerstein's view of the global economic system as divided between certain industrialized nations that control wealth and developing countries that are controlled and exploited
world system analysis
positive efforts to recruit minority group members or women for jobs, promotions, and educational oppurtunities
affirmative action
the use of the principle of race neutrality to defend a racially unequal status quo
color-blind racism
an interactionist perspective that states that interracial contact between people of unequal status engaged in a cooperative task will reduce prejudice
contact hypothesis
the denial of opportunities and equal rights to individuals and groups based on some type of arbitrary bias
discrimination
a group that is set apart from others primarily because of its' national origin or distinctive cultural pattern
ethnic group
the tendency to assume that one's own culture and way of life represent the norm or are superior to all others
ethnocentrism
a marxist theory tat views racial subordination in the US as a manifestation of the class system inherent in capitalism
exploitation theory
in invisible barrier that blocks the promotion of a qualified individual in a work environment because of the individual's gender, race, or ethnicity
glass ceiling
a criminal offense committed because of the offender's bias against a race, religion, ethnic group, national origin, or sexual orientation
hate crime
the denial of opportunities and equal rights to individuals and groups that results from the normal operations of a society
institutional discrimmination
a negative attitude toward an entire category of people, often an ethnic or racial minority
prejudice
a sociohistorical process in which racial categories are created, inhibited, transformed, and destroyed
racial formation
a group that is set apart from others because of obvious physical differences
racial group
any arbitrary action initiated by an authority based on race, ethnicity, or national origin rather than on a person's behavior
racial profiling
the belief that one race is supreme and all others are innately inferior
racism
unreliable generalization about all members of a group that does not recognize individual differences within the group
stereotype
an emphasis on such concerns as ethnic food or political issues rather than deeper ties to one's ethnic heritage
symbolic ethnicity
concern for the maintenance of harmony and the internal emotional affairs of the family
expressiveness
expectations regarding the proper behavior, attitudes, and activities of males and females
gender role
fear of and prejudice against homosexuality
homophobia
an emphasis on tasks, a focus on more distant goals, and a concern for the external relationship between one's family and other social institutions
instrumentality
the term for the convergence of social forces results in increased subordination of low-status women
matrix of domination
the double burden-work outside the home followed by child care and housework- that many women face and few men share equitably
second shift
the ideology that one sex is superior to the other
sexism
behavior that occurs when work benefits are made contingent on sexual favors
sexual harrassment
sorokin
first made the distinction between vertical and horizontal mobility
bell
noted that that modern societies tend to be urban, literate, industrial, and have sophisticated transportation and media systems, and that families in such societies are organized within the nuclear family unit rather than the extended family model
lenski, jr.
critic of the functionalist analysis of stratification notes that while a system of rewards for filing highly expert professions demanding long years of education and skill may once have served the overall purposes of society, this situation no longer exists
rossides
created a five-class typology of the US class system
gans
suggests that is functional for society to have poor people to do society's dirty work at low wages, to provide middle-class jobs for people who serve the poor, and to serve as a measuring rod of status for those with higher positions
dahrendorf
sociologist that has merged marx's emphasis on class conflict with weber's recognition that power is an important element of stratification
weber
maintained that a persons position in a stratification system reflects some combination of their class, status, and power
davis and moore
argue that stratifications is universal and that social inequality is necessary so that people will be motivated to fill functionally important positions
nash
identified 3 functions in which racially prejudiced beliefs serve the dominant group
marx
classical theorist whose work is the basis for an approach to racism which emphasizes that racism keeps minorities in low-paying jobs, thereby supplying the capitalist ruling class with a pool of cheap labor
cox, blauner, hunter
used the exploitation theory to explain the basis of racial subordination in the US
wilson
suggested that interracial coalitions would most likely reduce racial and ethnic stereotyping and prejudice
mcintosh
sociologist who became interested in the privileges of being white
thomas
observed that people respond not only to the objective features of a situation or person but also to the meaning that situation or person has for them
hochschild
did a study on the second shift, which refers to the double-burden put upon women who work outside the home and then come home to childcare and housework
parsons and bales
a)distinguished between instrumental and expressive roles
b)conducted a functionalist analysis of gender roles in the US
c)noted that families benefit from the traditional division of labor between men and women, which ensures that all of societies jobs are completed
brannon and doyle
have identified 5 aspects of male gender roles
engels
wrote the origin of private property, the family, and the state. argued that women's subjugation coincided with the rise of private property during industrialization
sanday
work in indonesia showed a four million member minangkabau society where men and women work as patterns for a common good
wollstonecraft
wrote a vindication of the rights of women
connell
australian sociologist known for coining the term multiple masculinities