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130 Cards in this Set

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Basic research
research focused on aquiring knowledge that might not have a direct practical application
applied research
research that attempts to find a solution to specific problems
experimental psychologists
psychologists who apply experimental methods to the study of behavior
comparative psychologists
psychologists who study behavior similarities and differences among animal species
physiociological psychologists
psychologists who focus on the biological underpinnings of behavior
clinical psychologists
psychologists who use psychological techniques to evaluate/treat people with mental disorders
psychiatrists
medical doctors who specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of mental of psychological disorders
counseling psychologists
psychologists who help people clarify their life goals, problems, etc.
school psychologists
psychologists who evaluate/assist children with learning problems/needs
educational psychologists
psychologists who study the measurement of intelligence and the process involved in academic achievement
personality psychologist
psychologists who study the psychological characteristics and behaviors that distinguish us as individuals and lead us to act a certain way over time
social psychologists
psychologists who study groups or social influences on behaviors and attitudes
environmental psychologists
psychologists who study relationships between the physical environment and behavior
industrial/organizational psychologists
psychologists who study peoples behavior at work
consumer psychologists
psychologists who study why people purchase particular products or brands
neuropsychologists
psychologists who study relationships between the brain and behavior
geropsychologists
psychologists who focus on psychological processes involved in aging.
forensic psychologists
psychologists involved in the application of psychology to the legal system
sport psychologists
psychologists who apply psychology to understand and improve athletic performance
inferences
conclusions drawn from observation
theories
formulations that account for relationships among observed events or experimental findings in ways that make them more understandable and predictable.
variables
factors or measures that varry within an experiment or among individuals
scientific method
a method of inquiry involving careful observation and use of experimental methods
hypothesis
a premise prediction about the outcome of an experiment
statistics
a branch of mathematics involving the tabulation, analysis, and interpertation of numerical data
statistical significance
a term representing that a finding is unlikely to have been due to chance or random fluctuation
replication
the attempt to duplicate findings
case study method
an in depth study of one or more individuals
survey method
a research method that uses structured interviews or questionnaires to gather information about groups or people
structured interview
an interview in which a particular set of questions is asked in a particular order
questionnaire
a written set of questions or statements to which people reply by marking their responses on an answer form
population
all the individuals or organisms that constitute a particular group
samples
subsets of a population
random sampling
a method of sampling in which each individual in the population has an equal chance of being selected
social desirability bias
the tendency to respond to questions in a socially desirable manner.
volunteer bias
the type of bias that arises when people who volunteer to participate in a survey or research study have characteristics that make them unrepresentative to the population from which they were drawn
naturalistic observation method
a method of research based on careful observing of behavior in natural settings
empirical approach
a method of developing knowledge based on evaluating evidence gathered from experiments and careful observation
correlation method
a research method that examines relationships between variables
experimental method
a method of scientific investigation involving the manipulation of independent variables and observation or measurement of their effects on dependent variables
independent variables
factors that are manipulated in an experiment
dependent variables
the effects or outcomes of an experiment that are believed to be dependent on the values of the independent variables
control groups
groups of research participants in an experimental study who do not receive the experimental treatment or intervention
random assignment
a method of randomly assigning research participants to experimental control groups
placebo
An inert substance of experimental condition that resembles the active treatment
placebo effects
positive outcomes of an experiment resulting from a participants expectations about the effects of treatment rather than from the experimental treatment itself
single blind studies
in drug research, studies in which research participants are kept uninformed about whether they are receiving the experimental drug or a placebo
double blind studies
In drug research, studies in which both participants and experimenter are kept uninformed about which participants receive the active drug and which receive the placebo
ethics review committees
committees that evaluate whether proposed studies meet ethical guidelines
informed consent
agreement to participate in a study following disclosure of information about the purposes and nature of the study and it's potential risks and benefits
neurons
nerve cells
brain
the mass of nerve tissue encased in the skull that controls virtually everything we are and everything we do
soma
the cell body of a neuron contains the nucleus of a cell and carries out the cells metabolic functions
axon
the tubelike part of a neuron that carries messages away from the cell body toward other neurons
terminal buttons
swellings at the tips of axons from which neurotransmitters are dispatched into the synapse
neurotransmitters
chemical messengers that transport nerve impulses from one nerve cell to another
synapse
the small fluid-filled gap between neurons through which neurotransmitters carry neural impulses
dendrites
treelike structures projecting from the stoma that receive neural messages from neighboring neurons
motor neurons
neurons that convey nerve impulses from the central nervous system to muscles and glands
sensory neurons
neurons that transmit information from sensory organs, muscles and inner organs to the spinal cord and brain.
interneurons
nerve cells in the central nervous system that connect neurons to neurons; in the brain they are involved in the processing of information
nerve
a bundle of axons from different neurons that transmit nerve impulses
glial cells
small but numerous cells in the nervous system that support neurons that form the myelin sheath found on many axons
myelin sheath
a layer of protective insulation that covers the axons of certain neurons and helps speed transmission of nerve impulses
nodes of ranvier
gaps in the myelin sheath that create non insulated areas along the axon
multiple sclerosis (MS)
a disease of the central nervous system in which the myelin sheath is damaged or destroyed
resting potential
the electrical potential across the cell membrane of a neuron in its resting state
depolarization
a positive shift in the electrical charge in the neurons resting potential, making it less negatively charged
action potential
an abrupt change from a negative to a positive charge of a nerve cell, also called a neural impulse.
all-or-none principle
The principle by which neurons will fire only when a change in the level of excitation occurs that is sufficient enough to produce an action potential
refractory period
a temporary state in which a neuron is unable to fire in response to continued stimulation
reuptake
the process in which neurotransmitters are reabsorbed by the transmitting neuron
antagonists
drugs that block the actions of neurotransmitters by occupying the receptors in which the neurotransmitters dock
agonists
drugs that either increase the availability or effectiveness of neurotransmitters or mimic their actions.
hindbrain (includes 3 main parts)
the lowest and, in evolutionary terms, oldest part of the brain; includes the medulla, pons, and cerebellum
medulla
a structure in the hindbrain involved in regulating basic life functions, such as heartbeat and respiration.
pons
a structure in the hindbrain involved with sleep and wakefulness. (arousal)
brainstem
the "stalk" in the lower part of the brain that connects the spinal cord to higher regions of the brain
cerebellum
a structure in the hindbrain involved in controlling coordination and balance
midbrain
the part of the brain that lies on the top of the hindbrain and below the forehead
reticullar formation
a weblike function of neurons involved in regulating states of attention, alertness, and arousal
forebrain
(6 main parts)
the largest and uppermost part of the brain; contains the thalamus, hypothalamus, limbic system, basal ganglia, and cerebral cortex.
thalamus
a structure in the forebrain that serves as a relay station for sensory information and that plays a key role in regulating states of wakefulness and sleep (relay center)
"relay center"
thalamus
basal ganglia
an assemblage of neurons lying in the forebrain that is important in controlling movement and coordination
hypothalamus
a small, pea sized structure in the forebrain that helps regulate many vital bodily functions, including body temperature and reproduction, as well as emotional states, aggression, and response to stress.
limbic system
a formation of structures in the forebrain that includes the hippocampus, amygdala, and parts of the thalamus and hypothalamus; is involved in memory and emotional processing
amygdala
a set of almond-shaped structures in the limbic system believed to play an important role in aggression, rage, and fear
hippocampus
a structure in the limbic system involved in memory functions
cerebral cortex
the wrinkled, outer layer of the gray matter that covers the cerebral hemispheres; controls higher mental functions, such as thought and language.
cerebrum
the largest mass of the forebrain consisting of two cerebral hemispheres.
cerebral hemisphere
the right and left masses of the cerebrum which are joined by the corpus callosum.
corpus callosum
the thick bundle of nerve fibers that connects the two cerebral hemispheres
occipital lobes
the parts of the cerebral cortex, located at the back of both cerebral hemispheres, that process visual stimuli.
parietal lobes
the parts of the cerebral cortex, located on the side of each cerebral hemisphere, that process bodily sensations.
somatosensory cortex
the part of the parietal lobe that process information about touch and pressure on the skin, as well as position of the parts of our bodies as we move about
frontal lobes
the parts of the cerebral cortex located at the front of the cerebral hemispheres, that are considered the "executive center" of the brain because of their role in higher mental functions.
"executive center" of brain
frontal lobes
motor cortex
a region of the frontal lobes involved in regulating body movement
temporal lobes
the parts of the cerebral cortex lying beneath and somewhat behind the frontal lobes that are involved in processing auditory stimuli.
association areas
parts of the cerebral cortex that piece together sensory information to form meaningful perceptions of the world, and perform higher mental functions
EGG (electroencephalograph)
a device that records electrical activity in the rain
CT (computed tomography) scan
or CAT scan
a computer-enhanced imaging technique in which an X-ray beam is passed through the body at different angels to generate a three-dimensional image of bodily structures
PET (positron emission tomography)
An imaging technique in which a radioactive sugar tracer is injected into the bloodstream and used to measure levels of activity of various parts of the brain.
MRI (magnetic resonance imaging)
A technique that uses a magnetic field to create a computerized image of internal bodily structures.
lesioning
In studies of brain functioning, the intentional destruction of brain tissue in order to observe the effects on behavior
electrical recording
as a method of investigating brain functioning, a process of recording the electrical changes that occur in a specific neuron or groups of particular activities or behaviors
electrical stimulation
as a method of investigating brain functioning, a process of electrically stimulating particular parts of the brain to observe effects on behavior.
lateralization
the specialization of the right and left cerebral hemispheres for particular functions
Broca's area
an area of the left frontal lobe involved in speech
Wernicke's area
an area of the left temporal lobe involved in processing written and spoken language
aphasia
loss or impairment of the ability to understand or express language.
plasticity
the ability of the brain to adapt itself after trauma or surgical alteration
stroke
the sudden loss of consciousness and resulting paralysis, loss of sensation, and other disability or death resulting from blockage of blood to a part of the brain or from bleeding in the brain
prefrontal cortex
the area of the frontal lobe that lies in front of the motor cortex and that is involved in higher mental functions, including thinking, planning, impulse control, and weighing the consequences of behavior
laceration
a type of brain trauma in which a foreign object, such as a bullet or a piece of shrapnel pierces the skull and injures the brain.
epilepsy
A neurological disorder characterized by seizures marked by sudden violent discharges of electrical activity in the brain
split-brain patients
persons whose corpus callosum has been surgically severed.
genotype
an organisms genetic code
nervous system
the network of nerve cells for communicating and processing information from within and outside the body
central nervous system
the part of the nervous system that consists of the brain and the spinal cord.
spine
the protective bony column that houses the spinal cord
reflex
an automatic, unlearned response to particular stimuli
spinal reflex
a reflex controlled at the level of the spinal cord that may involve as few as two neurons
peripheral nervous system
the part of the nervous system that connects the spinal cord and the brain with the sensory organs, muscles and glands.
somatic nervous system
the part of the peripheral nervous system that transmits information between the central nervous system and the sensory organs and muscles; also controls voluntary movements
autonomic nervous system
the part of the peripheral nervous system that automatically regulates involuntary bodily functions such as breathing, heart rate, and digestion
sympathetic nervous system
the branch of the autonomic nervous system that accelerats bodily process and releases the stores of energy needed to meet increased physical demands
parasympathetic nervous system
the branch of the autonomic nervous system that regulates bodily processes, such as digestion, that replenish stores of energy.
spinal cord
the column of nerves that transmits information between the brain and the peripheral nervous system