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202 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
two phenomena that illustrate why we cannot rely solely on intuition and common sense
1. hindsight bias
2. judgmental overconfidence
who founded hindsight bias?
paul slovic and baruch fischhoff
hindsight bias and overconfidence often lead us to overestimate our
intutition
Scientific inquiry, fed by ________ and ___________ can help us sift reality from illusions
curiosity, skepticism and humility
thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions. rather, it examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions
critical thinking
psychologists arm their scientific attitude with the _______________-
scientific method.
an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes observations and predicts behaviors or events.
theory
a testable prediction, often implied by a theory
hypothesis
a statement of the procedures (operations) used to define research varieables. For Example, human intelligence may be operationally defined as what an intelligence test measures.
Operational definition
repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances.
replication
example of operational definition: if you were to measure kids watching violence and how they react. you would?
define violence and exposure and the number of acts of violent acts in a 30 min show and the number of acts of aggression with play group
A self-correcting process for asking questions and observing nature's answers
the scientific method
good theories explain by:
1. organizing and linking observed facts
2. implying hypotheses that offer testable predictions and sometimes practical applications
the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that we would have foreseen it.
hindsight bias
we are routinely _______ of our judgments.
overconfident
________________ organize observations and imply predictive hypotheses.
psychological theories
an observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles; one of the oldest research methods. can suggest hypotheses for further study; they show us what can happen.
case study
a technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of people, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of them. answers may well depend on your wording and your choice of respondents
survey
the tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share our beliefs and behaviors
false consensus effect
all the cases in a group, from which samples may be drawn for a study.
population
a sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion
random sample
observing and recording behavior in naturally occuring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation
naturalistic observation
a measure of the extent to which 2 factors vary toghether and thus of how well either factor predicts the other.
correlation
the mathematical expression of the relationship, ranging from -1 to 1.
correlation coeffectient
a graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of 2 variables.
scatterplot
the direction of the relationship between 2 variables
slope
the amount of scatter suggests the strength of the correlation. ex: little scatter indicates-
high correlation.
advantage of case studies
can suggest hypothesis for later study
disadvantage of case studies
it may lead to false conclusions
disadvantage of naturalistic observation
cannot explain behviors
advantage of Naturalistic observation
can expand understanding by coming up with hypothesis for later usage.
two sets of scores, such as height and weight, tend to rise or fall together.
positive correlation
two things relate inversely, one set of scores goes up and the other goes down.
Negative correlation
helps us see the world more clearly by revealing the extent to which two things relate.
correlation coeffecient.
correlation does not prove __. correlation indicates the possibility of a __________________.
causation.
cause-effect relationship
the perception of a realationship where none exists. ex: couples who adopt beome more likely to conceive
illusory correlation
a ________ factor may be the cause of the correlation
third
random events taht we notice and falsely assume are related. They arise from our sensitivity to dramatic or unusual events.
illusory correlation
a research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process.
experiment
the clearest and cleanest way to isolate cause and effect is to-
experiment.
experiments enable a researcher to focus on the possible effects of one or more factors by :
1. manipulating the factors of intrest
2. holding constant other factors.
unlike correlational studies, which uncover natuarally occuring relationships, an experiment manipulates a factor to determine its _
effect.
an experimental proceudre in which both the research participants and the research staff are blind about whethr the research participiants have recieved the treatment or a placebo.
double-blind procedure
experimental results caused by expectations alone; any effect on behavior caused by the adminstration of an inert substance or conditon, which is assumed to be an active agent.believeing you are getting a treatment
placebo effect
the condition of an experiment that exposes participants to the treatment that is to one version of the independent variable
experimental condition
the condition of an experiment that contrasts with the experimental that contrats with the experimental condition and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment.
control condition
assigning participants to experimental and control condition by chance, thus minimizing preexisting differences b/w those assigned to the different groups
random assignment
the group exposed to the treatment
experimental condition
a group that experiences no treatment or a different version of the treatment
control condition
2 types conditions in an experiment:
1. experimental condition
2. control condition
__________ is the factor you manipulate to study its effect. The _____________ is the factor you measure to discover any changes that occur in response to these manipulations
independent
dependent
observes and records behaviors; uses case studies, surveys, or naturalistic observations, nothing is manipulated; no control of variables; single cases may be misleading
descriptive
detects naturally occuring relationships; to assess ow well one variable predicts another; computes statistcal association, sometimes among survey responses; nothing is manipulated; does not specify caus and effect
correlational
explores cause and effect; manipulates one or more factors; uses random assignment; manipulates the independent variable; sometimes not feasible; results may not generalize to other contexts; not ethical to manipulate certain variables
experimental
control extraneous influences, which helps us infer cause and effect
random assignment
a single score that represents a whole set of scores is
measure of central tendency
how similar or diverse the scores are
variation
the difference bw the highest and lowest scores in a distribution
range
a computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score
standard deviation
a statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occured by chance
statistical signifigance
three principles for making generalizations from samples:
1. representative samples are better than biased samples.
2. less-variable observations are more reliable than those that are more variable
3. more cases are better than fewer.
statistical significance indicates the likelihood that a result will happen by chance. it does not indicate the __________ of the result
importance
stats help us to-
1.
2.
3.
1.organize
2. summarize
3. make inferences from data
three central tendencies:
1. mode
2. mean
3. median
the eduring behaviors, ideas, attitiudes, and traditions shared by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next.
culture
ethical principles developed by the APA urge investigators to-
1.
2.
3.
4.
1. obtain the informed consent of potential participants
2. protect them from harma nd discomfort
3. treat info ab individual participants confidental
4. fully explain the research aftwards
values affect:
1. what we study
2. how we study it
3. how we interpret results
males and females are _____ and _______ alike
biologically and psychologically
how messages are transported
motor neuron
which portion of your skull and brain was responsible of actions. by feeling skull
Phrenology
"listener" they recieve info from other neuron's dendrites
dendrites
"speak" they take info to other neurons
axon
is a nerve; axons never touch
bundle of axon
neural impulse; brief electric charge that travels down the axon
action potential
when impulses are not being passed. chemical ions are balanced on inside and outside of axon
resting potential
level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse
threshold
_ on inside and _ on outside
-
+
__________ when action potential begins; gate opens + on inside until reaches threshold.
depolarized
chemical messengers that are released by firing axon
neurotransmitters
whole area
synapse
actual space b/w dendrites
synaptic gap
fatty substance that incases axon- insalation not on all neurons; this increases speed of firing
myelin sheath
spaces between myelin sheath; messages jump
nodes
lesions on mylein sheath. harden; neurons dont fire as fast
multiple sclerosis
Causes some neurons to fire or fire more quickly
stimulus
where everyting goes back to normal before next occurence
resting refractory potential
where drugs have their effect
synaptic gap
drug can be 2 things:
1. agonist
2. antagonist
mimics a neurotransmitter; drug molecule is very similar to neurotransmitter
agonist
blocks neurotransmitters. drug molecule similar enough that it binds to neurotransmitter. occupies the spot
antagonist
example of agonist
L-dopa for parkinsons
example of antagonist
tylenol or advil
every junction bw motor neuron and skeletal muscle helps you move
acetylcholine
bodies own pain killers. ex: runners high; relief from acupuncture; severely injured
endorphins
2 NS:
Central Nervous
Peripheral Nervous
2 under central
spinal cord
brain
2 types of NS in Peripheral NS
1. Somatatic
2. Autonomic
2 types of NS under autonomic
1. parasympathetic
2.sympathic
going to and from your brain and to spinal cord
peripheral NS
voluntary movement of skeletal muscle controls it; intentional movement
Somatic or skeletal
glands and muscles of internal organs; breathing regulates heart rate. bodily functions
autonomic
arouses you for defense; dialates artieres speeds up heart rate. "fight or flight" nervousness slows down digestion
sympathetic
calms body down. conserves energy. lowers heart rate
parasympathic
Structures responsible for reflex actions and the nerve fibers that link your brain and other parts of body. anything below neck.
Spinal cord
tap on knee reflex happens bc of this. it has gray and white matter.
Spinal cord
near center of SC
gray
outer part of SC
white
3 neurons in NS:
1. sensory
2.interneurons
3. motor
sends info from tissue and organs inward to brain
sensory
internal communication and processing
interneurons
instruction out to bodys tissue
motor
sensory switchboard
thalamus
heart beat and breathing
medulla
arousal. could send into coma. filters out info that we dont need to deal with
reticular formation
band axon fibers connect brain together
Corpus and Callosum
last part to usually develop. organizes sensory info
1. emotion, memory, language, thinking, perception
2. controls muscles to speak
association areas
1.frontal
2. brokea's area
corridenates voluntary movement"little brain" makes it smooth and fluid
cerebellum
linked to emotions and motives
1-3
Limbic system
contains:
1.Hippocampus
2.Amygdala
3.Hypothalamus
processes memory-gets smaller as you age
hippocampus
aggression and fear
amygdala
means "under" eating drinking, temperature, controls pitituary gland
hypothalamus
most of higher thinking. self awareness, judgements, emotional behavior, intuitve. largest lobe. ability to plan ahead
frontal lobe
damage to frontal lobe could:
alter personality and ability to plan ahead
Neural signal that intuites movement
motor cortex
seat of body senstation
parietal lobe
specializes in recieving info from skin senses and movement of body parts
sensory cortex
enviornment info integrating it. reconciling tatil info with visual and auditory, inable math and spacial reasoning, help recognize faces
association areas
vision and visional perception
occipital lobe
auditory perception, some emotional control, language comprehension, memory
temporal lobe
4 lobes:
1. frontal
2. parietal
3. occipital
4. temporal
top of lobe-temporal. thinking and inerpreting aspects of language
wernicke's area
damage to wernicke's area
may not be able to understand what they read or hear; difficult to understand
impaired use of language
aphasia
Genes
Nature
46 chromosomes; small sigments of DNA molecule
genes
Enviornmental influences in life
1. parents
2. peers
politics, values, religions influenced by
parents
food, accents, and cultures influenced by
peers
giving priority to one's own goals over group goals and defining one's identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group identifications
individualism
giving priority to the goals of one's group (often one's extended family or work group) and defining one's identity accordingly
collectivism
an understood rule for accepted and expected behavior. presrcibe proper behavior
norms
the buffer zone we like to maintain around our bodies
personal space
branch that studies physical, mental and social changes throughout the life span
developmental psychology
1-3 developmental psychology
1. nature vs. nurture
2. stability vs. change
3. continuity vs. stages
sex determined by ___ pair
23
fertilized egg.
zygote
after 9 weeks
fetus
toxic-can reach embryo and cause harm
teratogens
turning chin to feed
rooting reflex
babies need and want social. babies turn head by human voices 8 to 12 inches away from them-prefer it known by studies. gaze longer at
human face vs. animal
infancy steps
physical development
plasticity
born with all brain cells you'll ever have. NS is still immature and continues to grow. Memory after age 3 becasuse not enough neural connection. people need to bond for later development
physical development
brains capacity for modification is evident in brain reorganization following damage. taking over of another part of brain. lose this ability with age
plasticity
sequence is about the same. SIT CRAWL WALK RUN, time varies. bladder and boal control 2-2 1/2 or 3 years old. brain development slows at about 2. 23 billion neurons at birth
motor development
4 stages in cognitive development
1. sensorimotor stage
2. preoperational stage
3. concrete operational
4. formal operational
who studied cognitive development
Jean Piaget
concept or frame work that organizes or interprets info
schema
interpreting one's new experience in terms of ones existing schemas
assimilation
adapting one's current understandings to incorporate new info
accommodation
birth to 2; infant or child understands the world through sensory and motor interactions
sensorimotor stage
becomes aware of _______ at 6-8 months
object permenance
the awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived.
object permanence
2 to 6 or 7; use language but cannot understand complex reasoning and logic; conservation; egocentric; theory of mind
Preoperational Stage
the principle that properties such as mass, volume, and number remain the same despite changes in the forms of objects.
conservation
the preoperational child's difficulty taking another's point of view.
egocentrism
peopls's ideas about their own and others' mental states- about their feelings, perceptions, and thoughts and the behavior these might predict.
theory of mind
6 or 7 to 11; gain mental ability for math abilities and conservation
concrete operational
by age 12; think logically about abstract concepts and princiiples and can begin to figure out hypothetical propistions
formal operational
emotional tie with another person; body contact very important for forming this
attachment
child will explore when left
secure attachment
will not seperate and is very upset
insecure attachment
fear of stranger 6-9 years old.
stranger anxiety
in 1963; came up with stages
Erik Erikson
Trust vs. Mistrust
infancy
no; i'll do it myself stage
toddlerhood
intiative vs. guilt
preschooler
competence vs. inferiority
elementary school
idnetity vs. role confusion
adolesence
intimacy vs. isolation
young adulthood
generativity vs. stagnation
middle adulthood
integrity bs. despair
late adulthood
9 years old; they obey; morality of self-interest; will i get caught?
preconventional morality
early adolesense; seeking approval of others
conventional morality
morality of personal standing; should be here by adulthood
postconventional morality
keeps getting better
crystallized intelligence
decreases at age
fluid intelligence
2 stages in adolesence
1. physical
2. cognitive
in 1963; came up with stages
Erik Erikson
Trust vs. Mistrust
infancy
no; i'll do it myself stage
toddlerhood
intiative vs. guilt
preschooler
competence vs. inferiority
elementary school
idnetity vs. role confusion
adolesence
intimacy vs. isolation
young adulthood
generativity vs. stagnation
middle adulthood
integrity bs. despair
late adulthood
9 years old; they obey; morality of self-interest; will i get caught?
preconventional morality
early adolesense; seeking approval of others
conventional morality
morality of personal standing; should be here by adulthood
postconventional morality
keeps getting better
crystallized intelligence
decreases at age
fluid intelligence
2 stages in adolesence
1. physical
2. cognitive