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45 Cards in this Set

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Development Psychology
The study of progressive changes in behavior and abilities from conception to death.
Heredity ("nature")
The transmission of physical and psychological characteristics from parents to offspring through genes
How many chromosomes make up a cell?
Every human body holds 46 chromosomes that hold coded instructions of heredity except sperm cells and ova which hold 23 cells from the male and 23 from the female which make up the genetic heritage.
What are Chromosones made up of?
DNA
What is DNA?
a long ladder-like change of chemical molicules which acts as a code of instructions needed to make a human - with room left over to spare.
Genes
specific areas on a strand of DNA that carry hereditary information
What is a polygenic characteristic?
Personal traits or physical properties that are influenced by many genes working in combination
Dominant gene
A gene whose influence will be expressed each time the gene is present
Recessive gene
A gene whose influence will be expressed when it is paired with a second repressive gene
Temperament
The physical core of personality, including emotional and perceptual sensitivity, energy levels, typical mood, and so forth.
Environment("nurture")
The sum of all external conditions affecting development, including especially the effects of learning
sensitive period
During development, a period of increased sensibility to environmental influences. Also, a time during which certain events must take place for normal development to occur.
Congenital problems
Problems or defects that originate during prenatal development in the womb.
Genetic disorders
Problems caused by defects in the genes or by inherited characteristics
Teratogen
Radiation, a drug, or other substances capable of altering fetal development in ways taht cause birth defects
Prenatal Period
From conception to birth - Zygote
Germinal period
First 2 weeks after conception - embryo
embryonic period
2-8 weeks after conception - Fetus
Fetal Period
From 8 weeks after conception to birth - Fetus
Neonatal Period
From birth to a few weeks after birth - Neonate
Infancy
From a few weeks after birth until a child is walking securely, some children walk securely at less than a year, while others may not be able to walk until age 17 - 18 months - infant
Early Childhood
From about 15 - 18 months until about 1 - 2.5 years - Toddler
From age 2 - 3 to about 6 - Preschool child
Middle Childhood
From about 6 to about 12 - School-aged child
Pubescence
Period of about 2 years before puberty -
Puberty
Period of development at which biological changes of pubescence reach a climax marked by sexual maturity
Adolescence
From the beginning of pubescence until full social maturity is reached (difficult to fix duration of this period) - Adolescent
Adulthood
From adolescence to death; sometimes divided into other periods I.e.(young adulthood(19-25) adulthood (26-40) Maturity(41 plus) - Adult
Senesence
No defined limit that would apply to all people; extremely variable; characterized by marked psysiological and psychological deteriation - adult(senile, "old age"
Sensitive period
During development, a period of increased sensitivity to environmental influences. Also, a time during which certain events must take place for normal development to occur.
Contenital problems.
Problems or defects that originate during prenatal development in the womb.
intrauterine environment
interior of the womb
What are some examples of genetic disorders?
sickle-cell anemia, hemophilia, cystic fibrosis, muscular distrophy, albinism, and some forms of mental retardation.
What are some of the effects of Fetal Alchol Syndrome?
low birth weight, small head, bodily defects, facial malformations, possible emotional, behavioral and mental handicaps.
What is the risk to fetus of heavy smokers?
Miscarriage, premature or underweight babies, lower survival rate, lowered language and mental ability
Teratogens
Anything capable of causing birth defects
What are examples of a teratogen?
radiation, lead, pesticides, cocaine
What can a mother do to minimize prenatal risks?
1. maintain good nutrition.
2. learn relaxation and stress reduction techniques
3. avoid teratogens and other harmful substances
4. get adaquate exercise
5. obtain general exucation about pregnancy and childbirth
dendrites
nerve cell branches or
synapes
connections between nercve cells
Deprivation
In development, the loss or withholding of normal stimulation, nutrition, comfort, love, and so forth, a condition of lacking.
Enrichment
Deliberately making an environment more a novel, complex, and perceptually or intellectually stimulating.
Developmental level
An individual's current state of physical, emotional, and intellectual development.
Reciprocal Influences
Interactions between parent and child ( mothers touch, feed and sing to child, child smiles more and relationship blossoms between mother and child)
Maturation
The physical growth and development of the body and nervous system
Readiness
A condition that exists when maturation has advanced enough to allow the rapid acquisition of a particular skill