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36 Cards in this Set

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A relatively permanent change in behavior, or potential to respond, that results from experience
Learning
An inborn tendency to notice and respond to novel or surprising events.
Orienting Response
The decline in the tendency to respond to an event that has become familiar through repeated exposure.
Habituation
Increased responsiveness or sensitivity to an event that has been repeated.
Sensitization
A set of procedures used to investigate how organisms learn about the signaling properties of events. This involves the learning of relations between events – conditioned and unconditioned stimuli – that occur outside of one’s control.
Classical Conditioning
A stimulus that automatically leads to an observable response prior to any training.
Unconditioned Stimulus
The observable response that is produced automatically, prior to training, on presentation of an unconditioned stimulus.
Unconditioned Response
The acquired response that is produced by the conditioned stimulus in anticipation of the unconditioned stimulus.
Conditioned Response
The neutral stimulus that is paired with the unconditioned stimulus during classical conditioning.
Conditioned Stimulus
A procedure in which an established conditioned stimulus is used to condition a second neural stimulus.
Second-order conditioning
Responding to a new stimulus in a way similar to the response produced by an established conditioned stimulus.
Stimulus Generalization
Responding differently to a new stimulus than one responds to an established conditioned stimulus.
Stimulus Discrimination
Presenting a conditioned stimulus repeatedly, after conditioning, without the unconditioned stimulus, resulting in a loss in responding.
Extinction
The recovery of an extinguished conditioned response after a period of nonexposure to the conditioned stimulus
Spontaneous Recovery
Learning that an event signals the absence of the unconditioned stimulus.
Conditioned Inhibition
A procedure for studying how organisms learn about the consequences of their own voluntary actions (Also called Instrumental Conditioining)
Operant Conditioning
The idea that if a response in a particular situation is followed by a satisfying consequence, it will be strengthened. If a response in a particular situation is followed by an unsatisfying consequence, it will be weakened.
Law of Effect
The stimulus that sets the occasion for a response to be followed by reinforcement or punishment.
Discrimination Stimulus
Response consequences that increase the likelihood of responding in a similar way again.
Reinforcement
An event that, when presented after a response, increases the likelihood of that response occurring again.
Positive Reinforcement
An event that, when removed after a response, increases the likelihood of that response occurring again.
Negative Reinforcement
A situation in which a response can reduce or eliminate an unpleasant stimulus, such as when a rat escapes an ongoing shock by jumping over a barrier.
Escape Conditioning
A situation in which a response can prevent the delivery of an aversive stimulus, such as when a rat learns to jump over a barrier to avoid a shock.
Avoidance Conditioning
A stimulus that has acquired reinforcing properties through prior learning
Conditioned Reinforcer
Consequences that decrease the likelihood of responding in a similar way again.
Punishment
An event that, when presented after a response, lowers the likelihood of that response occurring again
Positive Punishment
An event that, when removed after a response, lowers the likelihood of that response occurring again
Negative Punishment
A rule that an experimenter uses to determine when particular responses will be reinforced.
Schedule of Reinforcement
A schedule in which reinforcement is delivered only some of the time after the response has occurred.
Partial Reinforcement Schedule
A schedule in which the number of responses required for reinforcement is fixed and does not change.
Fixed-Ratio Schedule
A schedule in which a certain number of responses is required for reinforcement, but the number of required responses typically changes.
Variable-Ratio Schedule
A schedule in which the reinforcement is delivered for the first response that occurs following a fixed interval of time.
Fixed-Interval Schedule
A schedule in which the allotted time before a response will yield reinforcement varies from trial to trial.
Variable-Interval Schedule
A procedure in which reinforcement is delivered for successive approximations of the desired response
Shaping
Learning that occurs as a result of observing the experiences of others (Also called social learning)
Observational Learning
The natural tendency to imitate the behavior of significant others
Modeling