Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/47

Click to flip

47 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
learning
the process by which experience or practice results in a relatively permanent change in behavior or potential behavior
conditioning
the acquisition of specific patterns of behavior in the presence of well-defined stimuli
classical (or Pavlovian) conditioning
the type of learning in which a response naturally elicited by one stimulus comes to be elicited by a different, formerly neutral stimulus
operant (or instrumental) conditioning
the type of learning in which behaviors are emitted (in the presence of specific stimuli) to earn rewards or avoid punishments
unconditioned stimulus (US)
a stimulus that invariably causes an organism to respond in a specific way
unconditioned response (UR)
a response that takes place in an organism whenever an unconditioned stimulus occurs
conditioned stimulus (CS)
an originally neutral stimulus that is paired with an unconditioned stimulus and eventually produces the desired response in an organism when presented alone
conditioned response (CR)
after conditioning, the response an organism produces when only a conditioned stimulus is presented
desensitization therapy
a conditioning technique designed to gradually reduce anxiety about a particular object or situation
conditioned food (or taste) aversion
conditioned avoidance of certain foods even if there is only one pairing of conditioned and unconditioned stimuli
operant behavior
behavior designed to operate on the environment in a way that will gain something desired or avoid something unpleasant
reinforcer
a stimulus that follows a behavior and increases the likelihood that the behavior will be repeated
punisher
a stimulus that follows a behavior and decreases the likelihood that the behavior will be repeated
law of effect
Thorndike’s theory that behavior consistently rewarded will be “stamped in” as learned behavior, and behavior that brings about discomfort will be “stamped out” (also known as the principle of reinforcement)
positive reinforcer
any event whose presence increases the likelihood that ongoing behavior will recur
negative reinforcer
any event whose reduction or termination increases the likelihood that ongoing behavior will recur
punishment
any event whose presence decreases the likelihood that ongoing behavior will recur
avoidance training
learning a desirable behavior to prevent the occurrence of something unpleasant such as punishment
learned helplessness
failure to take steps to avoid or escape an unpleasant or aversive stimulus that occurs as a result of previous exposure to unavoidable painful stimuli
response acquisition
the “building phase” of conditioning during which the likelihood or strength of the desired response increases
intermittent pairing
pairing the conditioned stimulus and the unconditioned stimulus on only a portion of the learning trials
Skinner box
a box often used in operant conditioning of animals, which limits the available response and thus increases the likelihood that the desired response will occur
shaping
reinforcing successive approximations to a desired behavior
extinction
a decrease in the strength of frequency of a learned response because of failure to continue pairing the US and CS (classical conditioning) or withholding of reinforcement (operant conditioning)
spontaneous recovery
the reappearance of an extinguished response after the passage of time, without further training
stimulus generalization
the transfer of a learned response to different but similar stimuli
stimulus discrimination
learning to respond to only one stimulus and to inhibit the response of all other stimuli
response generalization
giving a response that is somewhat different from the response originally learned to that stimulus
higher-order conditioning
conditioning based on previous learning; the conditioned stimulus serves as an unconditioned stimulus for further training
primary reinforcer
a reinforcer that is rewarding in itself, such as food, water, and sex
secondary reinforcer
a reinforcer whose value is acquired through association with other primary or secondary reinforcers
contingency
a reliable “if-then” relationship between two events such as a CS and a US
blocking
a process whereby prior conditioning prevents conditioning to a second stimulus even when the two stimuli are presented simultaneously
schedule of reinforcement
in operant conditioning, the rule for determining when and how often reinforcers will be delivered
fixed-interval schedule
a reinforcement schedule in which the correct response is reinforced after a fixed length of time since the last reinforcement
variable-interval schedule
a reinforcement schedule in which the correct response is reinforced after varying lengths of time following the last reinforcement
fixed-ration schedule
a reinforcement schedule in which the correct response is reinforced after a fixed number of correct responses
variable-ratio schedule
a reinforcement schedule in which a varying number of correct responses must occur before reinforcement is presented
biofeedback
a technique that uses monitoring devices to provide precise information about internal physiological processes, such as heart rate or blood pressure, to teach people to gain voluntary control over these functions
cognitive learning
learning that depends on mental processes that are not directly observable
latent learning
learning that is not immediately reflected in a behavior change
cognitive map
a learned mental image of a spatial environment that may be called on to solve problems when stimuli in the environment change
insight
learning that occurs rapidly as a result of understanding all the elements of a problem
learning set
the ability to become increasingly more effective in solving problems as more problems are solved
social learning theory
a view of learning that emphasizes the ability to learn by observing a model or receiving instructions, without firsthand experience by the learner
observational (or vicarious) learning
learning by observing other people’s behavior
vicarious reinforcement or vicarious punishment
reinforcement or punishment experienced by models that affects the willingness of others to perform the behaviors they learned by observing those models