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29 Cards in this Set

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Chromosomes
threadlike structures made of DNA molecules that contain the genes.
DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)
a complex molecule contaiing the genetic information that makes up the chromosomes. (A DNA molecule has two strands- forming a "double helix"- held together by bonds between pairs of nucleotides.)
genes
the biochemical units of heredity that make up the chromosomes; a segment of DNA capable of synthesizing a protein.
genome
the complete instructions for making an organism, consisting of all the genetic material in its chromosomes. The human genome has 3 billion weakly bonded pairs of nucleotides organized as coiled chains of DNA.
natural selection
the principle that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those that lead to increased reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations.
mutation
a random error in gene replication that leads to a change in the sequence of nucleotides; the source of all genetic diversity.
evolutionary psychology
the study of the evolution of behavior and the mind, using principles of natural selection. Natural selection has favored genes tha designed both behavioral tendencies and information-processing systems that solved adaptive problems faced by our ancestors, thus contributing to the survival and spread of their genes.
gender
in psychology, the characteristics, whether biologically or socially influenced, by which people define male and female.
behavior genetics
the study of the relative power and limits of genetic and environmenal influences on behavior.
environment
every nongenetic influence, from prenatal nutrition to the people and things around us.
identical twins
twins who develop from a single fertilized egg that splits in two, creating two genetically identical organisms.
fraternal twins
twins who develop from separate eggs. They are genetically no closer than brothers and sisters, but they share a fetal environment.
temperament
a person's characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity.
heritability
the proportion of variation among individulas that we can attribute to genes. The heritability of a trait may vary, depending on th range of populations and environments studied.
interaction
the dependence of the effect of one factor (such as environment) on another factor (such as heredity).
molecular genetics
the subfield of biology that studies the molecular structure and function of genes.
culture
the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large group of people and transmited from one generation to the next.
norm
an understood rule for accepted and expected behavior. Norms prescribe "proper" behavior.
personal space
the buffer zone we like to maintain around our bodies.
memes
self-replicating ideas, fashions, and innovations passed from person to person.
X chromosome
the sex chromosome found in both men and women. Females have two X chromosomes; males have one. An X chromosome from each parent produces a female child.
Y chromosome
the sex chromosome found only in males. When paired with an X sex chromosome from the mother, it produces a male child.
testosterone
the most important of the male sex hormones. Both males and femaleshave it, but the additional testosterone in males stimulates the growth of the male sex organs in the fetus and the development of the male sex characteristics during puberty.
role
a set of expectations (norms) about a social position, defining how those in the position ought to behave.
gender role
a set of expected behaviors for males anf or females.
gender identity
one's sense of being male or female
gender-typing
the acquisition of a traditional masculine or feminine role.
social learning theory
the theory that we learn social behaavior by observing and imitating and by being rewarded or punished.
gender schema theory
the theory that children learn from their cultures a concept of what it means to be male and female and that they adjust their behavior accordingly.