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30 Cards in this Set

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Consulation and testing that enables individuals to learn about their genetic heritage, including conditions that might harm any children they may conceive
genetic counseling
a genetic disorder in which part of the X chromosome seems to be attached to the rest of it by a very thin strong of molecules. THe actual cause is too many repetitions of a particular part of a gene's code
fragile X syndrome
A condition in which a person has 47 chromosomes instead of the usual 46, with 3 rather than 2 chromosomes at the 21st postition. Often have distinctive characteristics: unusual facial features heart abnormalities and language difficulties
Down syndrome
Having a condition that involves having a mixture of cells, some normal and some with an odd number of chromosomes or a series of missing genes
mosaic
A person whose genotype includes a gene that is not expressed in the phenotype. Carriers pass on those unexpressed genes to half their gametes and thus to half their children. Generally, only when the gene is inherited from both parents does the characteristic appear in the phenotype
carrier
Literally, fertiliztion "in glass". Sperm are mixed with ova that have been surgically removed from a woman's ovary. If the combination produces a zygote, it is inserted into the woman's uterus, where it may implant and develop into a baby
in vitro fertilization
A general term for the techniques designed to help infertile couples conceive and then sustain a pregnancy
assisted reproductive technology
THe inability to produce a baby after at least a year of trying
infertility
An organism that has exactly the same genotype as another organism that is already alive
clone
Twins and other multiple births that originate from one zygote that splits apart very early in development
monozygotic twins
Twins who are formed when two seperate ova are fertilized by two seperate sperm at roughly the same time, share about half their genes, like any other siblings
dizygotic twins
Referring to a gene carried on the X chromosome
X-linked
The interaction of a pair of alleles in such a way that the phenotype reveals the influence of one allele more than that of the other
dominant-recessive pattern
A gene that, through interaction with other genes, affects a specific trait
additive gene
An international effort to map the complete human genetic code. THis effort was virtually completed in 2001, though analysis is ongoing
human genome project
Literally "many genes" In genetics multifactorial means that traits are affected by many influences, both genetic and environmental
multifactorial
Literally "many genes" Almost all important human traits, including abilities and emotions, are the result of the interaction of many genes
polygenic
THe observable characteristics of a person including appearance, personailty, intelligence and all other traits
phenotype
THe naturally occuring termination of a pregnancy before the embryo or fetus is fully developed
spontaneous abortion
a 23rd pair of an X-shaped chromosome from the mother and a Y-shaped chromosome from the father
XY
a 23rd pair of two X-shaped chromosomes an X from the father
XX
THe chromosome pair that, in humans, determines the zygote's sex
23rd pair
A slight, normal variation of a particular gene.
allele
An organism's entire genetic inheritance, or genetic potential
genotype
THe single cell formed from the fusing of two gametes a sperm and an ovum
zygote
A reproductive cell, that is, a sperm or ovum that can produce a new individual if it combines with a gamete from the other sex to make a zygote
gamete
THe full set of all the 25,000 or so genes that are the instructions to make a human being
human genome
THe basic unit for the transmission of heredity, consisting of a string of chemicals coding for the manufacture of certain proteins
gene
A carrier of genes, one of the 46 molecules of DNA that each cell of the human body contains and that, together, contain all the genes.
chromosome
THe molecule that contains the chemical instructions for cells to manufacture various proteins
DNA