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47 Cards in this Set
 Front
 Back
The range within which the true population mean lies, with 95% certainty

95% confidence interval


An observer who can record data without knowing what the researcher has predicted

blind observer


The obligation to present evidence to support one's claim

burden of proof


A thorough description of a single individual, including information on both past experiences and current behavior

case history


A group treated in the same way as the expereimental group except for the procedure that the experiment is designed to test

control group


A group chosen because of its case of study

convenience sample


A measure of the relationship between two variables, which are both outside the investigator's control

correlation


A mathematical estimate of the relationship between two variables, ranging from +1 (perfect positive relationship) to 0 (no linear relationship) to 1 (perfect negative relationship)

correlation coefficient


A procedure in which investigators measure the correlation between two variables without controlling either of them

correlational study


Groups of people from at least two cultures

crosscultural samples


Cues that tell a subject what is expected of him or her and what the experiementer hopes to find

demand characteristics


The item that an experimenter measures to determine how changes in the independent variable affect it

dependent variable


Mathematical summaries of results such as measures of the average and the amount of variation

descriptive statistics


A study in which neither the observer nor the subjects know which subjects received which treatment

doubleblind study


A study in which the investigator manipulates at least one variable while measuring at least one other variable

experiment


The group that receives the treatment that an experiement is designed to teset

experimental group


The tendency of an experimenter to unintentionally distort procedures or results based on the experimenter's own expectations of the outcome of the study

experimenter's bias


The alleged ability of certain peple to acquire information without receiving any form of physical energy

extrasensory perception (ESP)


(with reference to a theory) making sufficiently precise predictions that we can at least imagine evidence that would contradict the thoery (if anyone had obtained such evidence)

falsifiable


A clear predictive statement

hypothesis


An apparent relationship based on casual observations of unrelated or weakly related events

illusory correlation


In an experiment the item that an experimenter manipulates to determine how it affects the dependent variable

independent variable


The process of inferring a general principle from observations

induction


Statements about large populations based on inferences from small samples

inferential statistics


A subject's agreement to take part in an experiment after being told what to expect

informed consent


The sum of all the scores reproted in a study divided by the total number of scores

mean


The middle score in a list of scores arranged from highest to lowest

median


A procedure that combines the results of many studies and analyzes them as though they were all one very large study

metaanalysis


The score that occrs most frequently in a distribution of scores

mode


A careful examination of what many people or nonhuman animals do under natural conditions

naturalistic observation


A symmetrical frequency of scores clustered around the mean

normal distribution (or normal curve)


A definition that specifies the operations (or procedures) used to produce or measure something, a way to give it a numerical value

operational definition


A expression meaning that teh probability of accidentally achieving results similar to the reported results is less than 5%

p<.05


(literally, stinginess) scientists' preference for the theory that explains the results using the simplest assumptions

parsimony


An interactive pill that has not known pharmacological effect on the subjects in an experiment

placebo


The entire group of individuals to be considered

population


A chance procedure for assigning subjects to groups so that every subject of being assigned to a particular group

random assignment


A group of people picked in random fashion so that every individual in the population has an equal chance of being selected

random sample


A statement of the highest and lowest scores

range


A result that can be repeated (at least approximately) by any competent investigator who follows the same procedures used in the origianl study

replicable result


A selection of the population chosen to match the entire population with regard to specific variables

representative sample


A study in which either the observer or the subjects are unaware of which subjects received which treatment

singleblind study


A measurement of the amount of variation among scores in a normal distribution

standard deviation (SD)


Effects that have a low probability of having arisen by chance

statistically significant (or statistically reliable) results


A study of the prevalence of certain beliefs, sponses to specific questions

survey


A comprehensive explanation of observable events

theory


"sender" given photo or film and "receiver" in another room asked to describe sender's thoughts and images. "receiver" distracted by sight and sound and try to describe photo or film

ganzfeld procedure
