• Shuffle
Toggle On
Toggle Off
• Alphabetize
Toggle On
Toggle Off
• Front First
Toggle On
Toggle Off
• Both Sides
Toggle On
Toggle Off
Toggle On
Toggle Off
Front

### How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

Play button

Play button

Progress

1/47

Click to flip

### 47 Cards in this Set

• Front
• Back
 The range within which the true population mean lies, with 95% certainty 95% confidence interval An observer who can record data without knowing what the researcher has predicted blind observer The obligation to present evidence to support one's claim burden of proof A thorough description of a single individual, including information on both past experiences and current behavior case history A group treated in the same way as the expereimental group except for the procedure that the experiment is designed to test control group A group chosen because of its case of study convenience sample A measure of the relationship between two variables, which are both outside the investigator's control correlation A mathematical estimate of the relationship between two variables, ranging from +1 (perfect positive relationship) to 0 (no linear relationship) to -1 (perfect negative relationship) correlation coefficient A procedure in which investigators measure the correlation between two variables without controlling either of them correlational study Groups of people from at least two cultures cross-cultural samples Cues that tell a subject what is expected of him or her and what the experiementer hopes to find demand characteristics The item that an experimenter measures to determine how changes in the independent variable affect it dependent variable Mathematical summaries of results such as measures of the average and the amount of variation descriptive statistics A study in which neither the observer nor the subjects know which subjects received which treatment double-blind study A study in which the investigator manipulates at least one variable while measuring at least one other variable experiment The group that receives the treatment that an experiement is designed to teset experimental group The tendency of an experimenter to unintentionally distort procedures or results based on the experimenter's own expectations of the outcome of the study experimenter's bias The alleged ability of certain peple to acquire information without receiving any form of physical energy extrasensory perception (ESP) (with reference to a theory) making sufficiently precise predictions that we can at least imagine evidence that would contradict the thoery (if anyone had obtained such evidence) falsifiable A clear predictive statement hypothesis An apparent relationship based on casual observations of unrelated or weakly related events illusory correlation In an experiment the item that an experimenter manipulates to determine how it affects the dependent variable independent variable The process of inferring a general principle from observations induction Statements about large populations based on inferences from small samples inferential statistics A subject's agreement to take part in an experiment after being told what to expect informed consent The sum of all the scores reproted in a study divided by the total number of scores mean The middle score in a list of scores arranged from highest to lowest median A procedure that combines the results of many studies and analyzes them as though they were all one very large study meta-analysis The score that occrs most frequently in a distribution of scores mode A careful examination of what many people or nonhuman animals do under natural conditions naturalistic observation A symmetrical frequency of scores clustered around the mean normal distribution (or normal curve) A definition that specifies the operations (or procedures) used to produce or measure something, a way to give it a numerical value operational definition A expression meaning that teh probability of accidentally achieving results similar to the reported results is less than 5% p<.05 (literally, stinginess) scientists' preference for the theory that explains the results using the simplest assumptions parsimony An interactive pill that has not known pharmacological effect on the subjects in an experiment placebo The entire group of individuals to be considered population A chance procedure for assigning subjects to groups so that every subject of being assigned to a particular group random assignment A group of people picked in random fashion so that every individual in the population has an equal chance of being selected random sample A statement of the highest and lowest scores range A result that can be repeated (at least approximately) by any competent investigator who follows the same procedures used in the origianl study replicable result A selection of the population chosen to match the entire population with regard to specific variables representative sample A study in which either the observer or the subjects are unaware of which subjects received which treatment single-blind study A measurement of the amount of variation among scores in a normal distribution standard deviation (SD) Effects that have a low probability of having arisen by chance statistically significant (or statistically reliable) results A study of the prevalence of certain beliefs, sponses to specific questions survey A comprehensive explanation of observable events theory "sender" given photo or film and "receiver" in another room asked to describe sender's thoughts and images. "receiver" distracted by sight and sound and try to describe photo or film ganzfeld procedure