Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

47 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The range within which the true population mean lies, with 95% certainty
95% confidence interval
An observer who can record data without knowing what the researcher has predicted
blind observer
The obligation to present evidence to support one's claim
burden of proof
A thorough description of a single individual, including information on both past experiences and current behavior
case history
A group treated in the same way as the expereimental group except for the procedure that the experiment is designed to test
control group
A group chosen because of its case of study
convenience sample
A measure of the relationship between two variables, which are both outside the investigator's control
A mathematical estimate of the relationship between two variables, ranging from +1 (perfect positive relationship) to 0 (no linear relationship) to -1 (perfect negative relationship)
correlation coefficient
A procedure in which investigators measure the correlation between two variables without controlling either of them
correlational study
Groups of people from at least two cultures
cross-cultural samples
Cues that tell a subject what is expected of him or her and what the experiementer hopes to find
demand characteristics
The item that an experimenter measures to determine how changes in the independent variable affect it
dependent variable
Mathematical summaries of results such as measures of the average and the amount of variation
descriptive statistics
A study in which neither the observer nor the subjects know which subjects received which treatment
double-blind study
A study in which the investigator manipulates at least one variable while measuring at least one other variable
The group that receives the treatment that an experiement is designed to teset
experimental group
The tendency of an experimenter to unintentionally distort procedures or results based on the experimenter's own expectations of the outcome of the study
experimenter's bias
The alleged ability of certain peple to acquire information without receiving any form of physical energy
extrasensory perception (ESP)
(with reference to a theory) making sufficiently precise predictions that we can at least imagine evidence that would contradict the thoery (if anyone had obtained such evidence)
A clear predictive statement
An apparent relationship based on casual observations of unrelated or weakly related events
illusory correlation
In an experiment the item that an experimenter manipulates to determine how it affects the dependent variable
independent variable
The process of inferring a general principle from observations
Statements about large populations based on inferences from small samples
inferential statistics
A subject's agreement to take part in an experiment after being told what to expect
informed consent
The sum of all the scores reproted in a study divided by the total number of scores
The middle score in a list of scores arranged from highest to lowest
A procedure that combines the results of many studies and analyzes them as though they were all one very large study
The score that occrs most frequently in a distribution of scores
A careful examination of what many people or nonhuman animals do under natural conditions
naturalistic observation
A symmetrical frequency of scores clustered around the mean
normal distribution (or normal curve)
A definition that specifies the operations (or procedures) used to produce or measure something, a way to give it a numerical value
operational definition
A expression meaning that teh probability of accidentally achieving results similar to the reported results is less than 5%
(literally, stinginess) scientists' preference for the theory that explains the results using the simplest assumptions
An interactive pill that has not known pharmacological effect on the subjects in an experiment
The entire group of individuals to be considered
A chance procedure for assigning subjects to groups so that every subject of being assigned to a particular group
random assignment
A group of people picked in random fashion so that every individual in the population has an equal chance of being selected
random sample
A statement of the highest and lowest scores
A result that can be repeated (at least approximately) by any competent investigator who follows the same procedures used in the origianl study
replicable result
A selection of the population chosen to match the entire population with regard to specific variables
representative sample
A study in which either the observer or the subjects are unaware of which subjects received which treatment
single-blind study
A measurement of the amount of variation among scores in a normal distribution
standard deviation (SD)
Effects that have a low probability of having arisen by chance
statistically significant (or statistically reliable) results
A study of the prevalence of certain beliefs, sponses to specific questions
A comprehensive explanation of observable events
"sender" given photo or film and "receiver" in another room asked to describe sender's thoughts and images. "receiver" distracted by sight and sound and try to describe photo or film
ganzfeld procedure