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58 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
biological psychology
a branch of psychology concerned with the links between biology and behavior
a nerve cell; basic building block of the nervous system
the bushy, branching extensions of a neuron that receive messages and conduct impulses toward the cell body
the extension of a neuron, ending in branching terminal fibers, messages pass to other neurons or muscles or glands
action potential
a neural impulse. Electrical impulse
a layer of fatty tissue encasing the fibers of many neurons; enables greater transmission speed
glial cells
garbage collectors
outnumber neurons 10 to 1
build myelin sheath
the level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse
the junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron.
chemical messengers that traverse the synaptic gaps between neurons
acetylcholine (ACh)
enables muscle action, learning, and memory.
morphine within-natural, opiatelike neurotransmitters linked to pain control and to pleasure.
influences movement, learning, attention, and emotion
affects mood, hunger, sleep, and arousal
helps control alertness and arousal
a major inhibitory neurotransmitter
a major excitatory neurotransmitter; involved in memory
mimics or enhances the neurotransmitter
interferes with or inhibits the neurotransmitter.
nervous system
the body's speedy, electrochemical communication system, consists of the nerve cells ofthe peripheral and central nervous system
central nervous system
the brain and spinal cord
peripheral nervous system
the sensory and motor neurons that connect the central nervous system to the rest of the body
neural cables containing many axons. connect the central nervous system with muscles, glands, and sense organs
sensory neurons
neurons that carry incoming info from the sense receptors to the CNS
CNS neurons that internally communicate and intervene between the sensory inputs & motor outputs
motor neurons
neurons that carry outgoing info from the CNS to the muscle and glands
somatic nervous system
the division of the peripheral nervous system that controls the body's skeletal muscles
autonomic nervous system
the part of the peripheral nervous system that controls the glands & the muscles of the internal organs. its sympathetic division arouses and parasympathetic division calms.
sympathetic nervous system
the division of the autonomic nervous system that calms the body. conserves energy.
a simple, automatic, inborn response to a sensory stimulus
tissue destruction
electroencephalogram (EEG)
an amplified recording of the waves of electrical activity that sweep accross the brain's surface. these waves are measured by electodes placed on the scalp
CT (computed tomograph)
a series of x-ray photographs taken from different angles and combined by computer into composite representation of a slice through the the body (CAT Scan)
PET positron emission tomograph Scan
a visual display of brain activity that detects where radioactive form of glucose goes while the brain performs a given task.
MRI magnetic resonance imaging
A technique that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce computer-generated images that distinguish among different types of soft tissue; allows us to see structures within the brain
the oldest part and central core of the brain, beginning where the spinal cord swells as it enters the skull. responsible for automatic survival functions.
base of the brainstem controls heartbeat and breathing
reticular formation
a nerve network in the brainstem that plays and important role in controlling arousal
the brain's sensory switchboard, located on top of the brainstem. It directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla
the "little brain" attached to the rear of the brainstem. helps coordinate voluntary movement and balance
limbic system
a doughnut-shaped system of neural structures at the border of the brainstem and cerebral hemispheres. associated with emotions such as fear and aggression, and drives such as those for food and sex. Includes hippocampus, amygala, hypothalamus
memory processing
two almond-shaped neural clusters that are components of the limbic system and are linked to emotion
neural structure lying below the thalamus.
directs several maitenance activities
helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland
is linked to emotion
cerebral cortex
the intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells that covers the cerebral hemispheres.
the body's ultimate control and info center
frontal lobes
involved in speaking & muscle movements & in making plans and judgements
motor cortex: area at the rear frontal lobes that controls voluntary movements
parietal lobes
include the sensory cortex
sensory cortex: area at the front of the parietal lobes that registers and processes body sensations.
occipital lobes
include the visual areas which receive the visual information form the opposite visual field
temporal lobes
include the auditory areas (Weirnickes)
association areas
areas of the cerebral cortex that are not involved in primary motor or sensory functions
involved in higher mental functions such as learning, remembering, thinking, and speaking.
Corpus callosum
largest bundle of neural fibers
connects the 2 brain hemispheres
carries messages between hemispheres
left brain
logic & language, speech/words/verbal, calculation
right brain
perceptual, creative thought, emotions, motor
Endocrine system
the body's slow chemical communication system
a set of glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream
split brain
condition where the 2 hemispheres of the brain are isolated by cutting the corpus collosum
adrenal glands
a pair of endocrine glands just above the kidneys. Secrete adreneline in times of stress
pituitary gland
the endocrine system's most influential gland. regulated growth and controls other endocrine glands.