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67 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Define Developmental Psychology.
Branch of psychology that studies how people change over time.
What are the key themes of Developmental Psychology?
-Patterns of growth/development that people share.
-Abrupt age
-Interaction between heredity (nature) and environment (nurture) throughout development.
Define Abrupt Age.
Stages people go through over the lifespan and the aspects of development that reflect slowly unfolding changes.
Define Critical Periods.
Periods during which a child is very sensitive to environmental influences.
Define Zygote.
The single cell that is formed at conception from the union of the egg cell and the sperm cell. (you begin your life as a zygote)
Define Chromosome.
Long structure made up of twisted parallel strands of DNA (found in the cell's nucleus)
What is encoded in Chromosomes? What does each Chromosome have?
-The genetic data you got from your biological parents.
Define DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid).
Stranded molecule that encodes genetic instructions (chemical basis of heredity).
Define Genes.
Unit of DNA on a chromosome that encodes instructions for making protein molecules.
At fertilization your mother's egg and your father's sperm cell each give you 23 chromosomes equaling 46 total. These chromosomes repersent your....
Genetic makeup / Genotype.
Define Genotype.
The genetic makeup of an individual.
Define Human Genome.
The complete set of DNA in a human.
Define Alleles.
One of the different forms of a particular gene.

Makes you unique

ex. dominant-recessive
Define Phenotype.
-Observable traits of an organism
-determined by interaction of genetics the environment.
Define the Prenatal Stage. What happens during the prenatal stage? What are the 3 stages the prenatal stage is divided into?
Stage of development before birth.
The single celled zygote develops into a full term fetus.
1: Define the Germinal Period aka the Zygotic Period. What happens during the Germinal Period? What happens at the end of the Germinal Period?
-First 2 weeks of Prenatal Development.
-During: the zygote undergoes rapid cell division and becomes attached to the wall of the uterus.
-End: The single celled zygote has developed into a cluster of cells called the embryo.
2: Define the Embryonic Period. What happens during the Embryonic Period? What happens at the end of the Embryonic Period.
-The 2nd period of prenatal development, from the 3rd week through to the 8th week.
-During: The organs and the major systems of the body form and the inital development of the sex organs.
-End: The embryo has grown into an inch in length and looks human.
Define Tetaogens.
Harmful substances that can cause defects in an embryo/fetus.

Example: bacteria, drugs, viruses.
3: Define the Fetal Period. What happens furing the 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th, and final 2 months of the fetal period?
-The 3rd and longest period of prenatal development, extending from the 9th weeks until birth.
-3rd month: fetus can move
-4th month: mother experiences "quickening" (can feel fetus move)
-5th month: all brain cells are present
-6th month: fetus's brain activity similar to newborn
-Final 2 months: Fetus 2x in weight by gaining body fat.
What are the Physical and Sensory capabilites (reflexes) that newborns are born with?
-ROOTING REFLEX (touching a newborn's cheek---the infant turns towards source of touch and opens mouth)

-Touching newborn's lips envokes SUCKING REFLEX.

-Putting your fingers inside a baby's palms the baby will respond with the GRASPING REFLEX--the baby will grip the fingers and can be lifted.
What senses do newborns have?
1-Vision (least developed sense at birth)
Explain how the brain develops after birth.
-At birth brain is 25% of its adult weight wehn birth body weight is only 5% of adult weight.
-During infancy the brain will grow 75% of its adult weight and the body weight will grow 20% of its adult weight.
Define Temperament.
-Inborn tendency to consistently behave/react in a certain way.
-Some babies are born fussy, calm, etc.
What did Alexander Thomas and Stella Chase discover about babies?
-They said 2 thirds of babies could be classified into 1 of 3 temperamental patterns.

1-Easy: Adapt easy, positive, have regular sleep/eat patterns.

2-Difficult: Very emotional, cry a lot, irregular sleep and eat patterns.

3-Slow To Warm Up: Have low activity level, withdraw from situations.

the other 1/2 of babies are average
Define Attachment.
Emotional bond that forms between an infant and its caregivers.
What are the 2 Temperament Terms of Reactivity?
1-High-reactive infants (react intensely to new experiences, fearful)

2-Low-reactive infants (calm and sociable)
Define the Attachment Theory.
Says an infant's ability to thrive physically and mentally depends on the quality of the attachment.
What causes an infant to develop a secure attachment?
When caregivers are consistently warm, responsive, and sensitive to their infants's needs.
What causes an infant to develop an insecure attachment?
When caregivers are neglectfult, inconsistent, or insensitive.
What is attachment measured by? Who developed it? Who is it used on?
-"Stange Situation"
-Mary D Salter Ainsworth.
-Typically used with infants ages 1 and 2 yrs old.
What did the linguist Noam Chomsky say about language?
"all childern are born with a biological predisposition to learn language and posess a 'universal grammar' (the can easily extract grammar rules from what they hear)"
Define Motherese.
High pitch, short sentences....its the talk that adults use with babies. Infants prefer Motherese to Adult speech.
What is the 1st stage of language developemnt, What sounds do babies make at 3 months of age?
Cooing (repeated vowel sounds 'ooo' 'aaah' and varying pitch)
What is the 2nd stage of language development, What sounds do babies make at 5 months of age?
Babble (adding constants to vowels 'ba-ba-ba' 'ma-ma-ma')
What is the 3rd stage of language development, What sounds do babies make at 1 year old
One Word Stage
What is the 4th stage of language development, What sounds do babies make at 2 years old?
2 word stage, beings putting words together.

where kitty?
What is the 5th and final stage of language development?
Fully developed language comprehension/production.
Define Gender.
The cultural, social, and psychological meanings associated with masculinity and femininity.
Define Gender Roles. At what age are childern able to identify/distinguish genders (not by sex organs but by hair, clothes, etc.)
The behaviors, attitudes, and personality traits thats are designed to be either masculine or feminine in a given culture.

-Ages 2-3
What are some gender differences that develop during childhood?
1-Toddler girls play with soft toys and dolls and ask adults for help / Toddler boys play with trucks blocks and wagons and play more actively than girls

2-Age 3+ childern develop a preference for playing with members of the smae sex

3-Girls are less rigid than boys in sitcking to sterotypes. boys are rigid about playing with toys associated with their sex
What are the 2 theories that explain gender role development?
1-Social Learning Theory of Gender Role Development

2-Gender Schema Theory
Define the Social Learning Theory of Gender Rolde Development.
says gender roles are acquired through the basic learning processes---learning the appropriate beahviors for each gender.
Define Gender Schema Theory.
says gender role development is influenced by mental representations of masculinity and femininity.
What are the 4 stages of Jean Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development.
-Says childern progress through 4 distinct cognitive stages.
1-Sensorimotor Stage
2-Preoperational Stage
3-Concrete Operational Stage
4-Formal Operational Stage
(1)Explain the Sensorimotor Stage of Cognitive Development.
-From birth to age 2
-Infant explores the environment and gathers knowledge through senses and motor activites
-Characteristics: Development of Object Permanance.
Define Object Permanace.
Understanding that an object continues to exist when it can no longer be seen.
(2)Explain the Preoperational Stage.
-From age 2 to 7
-Use of symbols and logical thought processes increase (active imagination)
-Characteristics: Increasing use of Symbolic Thought, tendency for Egocentrism, Irreversability, Centration, and the ability to understand Conservation.
Define Symbolic Thought.
Ability to use words, images, and symbols to represent the world.
Define Egocentrism.
Inability to take another person's point of view.
Define Irriversibility.
Ability to mentally reverse a sequence of events.
Define Centration.
Tendency to focus on only one aspect of a situation and ignore other important aspects.
Define Conservation.
Understanding that 2 equal quantities remain equal even when rearranged.
(3)Define the Concrete Operational Stage.
-Age 7 to adolescene
-Child develops that ability to think logically
-Characteristic: Less egocentric in thinking
(4)Define the Formal Operational Stage.
-adolescene to adulthood
-Person acquires ability to think logically
Define the Zone of Proximal Development.
The gap between what childern can accomplish on their own and what they can accomplish with the help of someone older.
Define Adolescene.
Transitional Stage between late childhood and the begining of adulthood. During sexual maturity is reached.
Define Puberty.
Stage of adolescene in which a kid reaches sexual maturity and becomes capable of reproduction.
What are the 2 categories of physical changes of Puberty?
1-Primary Sex Characteristics
2-Secondary Sex Characteristics
Define Primary Sex Characteristics.
Sex organs directly involved in reproduction (uterus, ovaries, penis, testicles)
Define Secondary Sex Characteristics.
Sex characteristics that differentiate between sexes but are not involved directly with reproduction: male facial hair and female breasts.
Define Adolescent Growth Spurt.
Period of rapid growth during puberty.
Define Menarche.
Female's first period.
Define Identity.
A person's description of himself/herself .
Define Menopause.
Cease of menstration and end of reproductive capability.
Define Activity Theory of Aging.
Theory that life satisfaction in late adulthood is highest when people maintain a level of activity
What are the 5 stages that people go through when they find out they are going to die, discovered by Elisabeth Kubler Ross?
What are some problems with Kubler Ross's theory?
-dying people do not always go through all those 5 stages
-dying is an individual process