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37 Cards in this Set

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Nodes of Ranvier
Breaks in the myelin sheath
Vesicles
A tiny sac in which neurotransmitters are stored.
Presynaptic inhibition
Inhibition at axonaxonal synapses that occurs when the presynaptic axon releases inhibitory neurotransmitters that block the release of neurotransmitters from the postsynaptic axon.
Postsynaptic Inhibition
Inhibition that takes place in the postsynaptic dendrite following the reslease of an inhibitory neurotransmitter from a presynaptic axon.
Action Potential
The voltage change recorded across the cell membrane in an excited neuron.
Synapse
A junction between two neurons.
Chemical Synapse
A junction between two neurons that communicate using neurotransmitters.
Synaptic Cleft
The narrow space between two communicating neurons.
Presynaptic Neuron
The neuron sending a message across a synapse.
Postsynaptic Neuron
The neuron receiving communication across a synapse.
Synapse
A junction between two neurons.
Chemical Synapse
A junction between two neurons that communicate using neurotransmitters.
Synaptic Cleft
The narrow space between two communicating neurons.
Presynaptic Neuron
The neuron sending a message across a synapse.
Postsynaptic Neuron
The neuron receiving communication across a synapse.
Synapse
A junction between two neurons.
Chemical Synapse
A junction between two neurons that communicate using neurotransmitters.
Synaptic Cleft
The narrow space between two communicating neurons.
Presynaptic Neuron
The neuron sending a message across a synapse.
Postsynaptic Neuron
The neuron receiving communication across a synapse.
GABA
A neurotransmitter that is the most abundant excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain.
Dopamine
A monoamine neurotransmitter that is a precursor of norepinephone and epinephrine.
Anandamide
A recently discovered neurotransmitter that binds cannabinoid receptors.
Curare
A nicotinic antagonist that produces paralysis
Nicotine
A nicotinic agonist, binds with acetylcholine ligand-gated ion channels.
Ligand-gated Ion Channel Receptor
A protein on the cell membrane that is attached to a ligand-gated channel and binds with a specific neurotransmitter.
Sodium-potasium pump
A built-in-mechanism in the cell, a membrane protein which has the duty of pumping sodium out of the neuron every time the ion slips in. Pumps sodium out and pumps potassium back in.
Temporal Summation
Addition of input from one presynaptic neuron over a brief period of time. In this, the the input from one presynaptic neuron over time is added by the postsynaptic neuron.
Spatial Summation
Addittion of input from many different presynaptic neurons.
Saltatory Conduction
The jumping of an action portential along a myelinated axon. Spreads from node of raniver to node of raniver, much faster than bit by bit on myelin.
Norepinephrine
a monoamine neurotransmitter that plays a role in mood, drive reduction, sleep, arousal, cognition, and emotions. come from tyrosine, which is commonly found in a variety in foods. With epinephrine and dopamine, they form a special class of monoamines know as catecholamines, because they each contain a catechol ring and one amine group.
James-Lange Theory of Emotion
An explanation of emotion that maintains that the physiological response to a stimulus produces an emotion.
Cannon-Bard Theory of Emotion
An explanation of emotion that maintains that a stimulus elicits an emotion, which produces physiological changes.
Papez Circuit
According to Papez, these structures include the hypothalamus, anterior thalamus, cingulate gyrus, and hippocampus. He concludeded that a pathway between subcortical structures in the forebrain is responsible for generating emotions. This ciruit is the connections between these parts.
Sensitization
A progressive increase in the effect of a drug with repeated administration. This is caused by altered gene function which increases the availability of glutamate receptors in the ventral tegmental area, which increases glutamate activity. This increase causes an increase in dopamine release, enhancing the effect of the drug.
Withdrawl
Severe physical syptoms, such as tremors, seizures, hallucinations, nauseaa, associated with abstinence from an abused substance.
Muscarinic Receptor
A G protein linked receptor that binds with both muscarine and acetylcholine. Gets its name from a poisonous mushroom. The receptors are not connected to a ligand-gated ion channel, and binding to this receptor does not open any ion channels.