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191 Cards in this Set

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What are the two main areas contained in the frontal lobe of the brain?
Primary motor cortex (precentral gyrus)and the
prefrontal cortex
What is the function of the primary motor cortex (precentral gyrus)?
Regulates movement of body by sending axons to the brainstem and spinal cord
What is the function of the prefrontal cortex?
Receives info from all sensory systems, 'contol centre'.
Working memory
What brain disorder is associated with the prefrontal cortex?
Korsakoffs syndrome
What is the result of damage to the prefrontal cortex?
damage causes people to lose social inhibition
What is the main brain area contained in the parietal lobe?
Primary somatosensory cortex
What is the function of the primary somatosensory cortex?
touch and pain
What is the result of damage to the parietal lobe?
attention deficits and spatial neglect
what is the function of the parietal lobe?
body sensations and sense of self
what is the function of the occipital lobe?
vision
what is the function of the temporal lobe?
hearing, complex vision (e.g. face recognition) and complex emotional behaviours
What is the result of damage to the temporal lobe?
can have similar affect to amygdala damage (Kluver-Bucy syndrome)
What is the structure and function of the corpus callosum?
large set of axons that connect the two cerebral hemispheres, allows communication between the hemispheres.
What area of the brain is severed in 'split brain' patients?
Corpus callosum
What is the function of the thalamus?
processes sensory info (apart from olfactory) and sends output to the cerebral cortex
What is the function of the hypothalamus?
conveys messages to the pituitary gland, which affects hormone release.
Controls motivation- feeding, drinking, temp, sex etc (Four f's)
What is the function of the pituitary gland?
synthesises and releases hormones into the blood stream.
What is the function of the basal forebrain?
key for arousal, wakefulness and attention
What are the symptoms when the basal forebrain deteriorates in Alzheimers?
attention deficits
What is the function of the medulla?
controls reflex actions- breathing, heart rate, sneezing, vomiting
What is the function of the pons?
pons=bridge in latin, axons cross from one side of the brain to the opposite side of the spinal cord- so left hemisphere control muscles on the right side of body.
Involved in sleep, paralyses the muscles during REM
What are the functions of the cerebellum?
involved in timing and precision of movement but also attention.
What does the midbrain contain?
substance nigra (which deteriorates in Parkinson's disease), Tectum and tegmentum.
How does a physiological explanation explain behaviour?
relation of brain activity to behaviour.
How does a ontogenic/developmental explanation explain behaviour?
development of structure/behaviour.
How does a phylogenetic explanation explain behaviour?
evolutionary history of structure/behaviour
How does a functional explanation explain behaviour?
why the structure/behaviour evolved.
What is ethology?
compares behaviours of different species, looks at function
what is neuropsychology?
tests the abilities of brain damaged people
what is cognitive neuroscience?
uses brain research to analyse cognition
What is an EEG?
recorded electrical activity in the brain through electrodes.
What is a PET scan?
(Position-emission tomography) records activity by reducing the emission of radioactivity from radioactive chemicals into the blood.
What is a fMRI scan?
(functional magnetic resonance imaging)- based on MRI (but shows changes over time rather than anatomy). Detects changes in oxygen content in blood (using strong magnetic field) which indicates amount of activity.
What is a lesion?
damage to a brain area
What is an ablation?
removal of a brain area
How many pairs of chromosomes?
23
What are chromosomes composed of?
DNA
A drug that mimics or increases the effects of a neurotransmitter is called a(N)______?
agonist
Individuals with Korsakoff's syndrome are similar to people with damage to the_______?
prefrontal cortex
opiate drugs bind to receptors in the brain for____?
endorphins
What is the basis for differences in sensory abilities across species?
organisms detect a range of stimuli that are biologically relevant for that species
A study with London taxi drivers found that answering _______activated their hippocampus more than answering____________.
spatial questions; nonspatial questions
The surest way to disrupt the biological clock is to damage the_____?
suprachiasmatic nucleus
Research on rats has demonstrated similarities between bulimia and______?
drug addiction
what area of the brain seems to be a key area for learned fears?
amygdala
Reuptake is the absorption of ___________?
neurotransmitters by the presynaptic neuron
the cerebellum is most important for any process that requires_________?
precise timing
Amygdala activation to angry and fearful expressions suggests that the amygdala responds most stongly____________?
When emotional interpretation is unclear.
You are walking after dark. A sudden noise frightens you. Your heart pounds, your pulse races, and your breathing rate increases. These responses are due to your_______?
sympathetic nervous system
Someone with Broca's aphasia has the greatest difficulty______?
Speaking
Which two factors will affect the speed of an action potential?
The presence of myelin and the diameter of the axon
Broca's are is located in the_______?
left frontal lobe
The optic nerves from the right and left eye initially meet at the_____?
Optic chiasm
In order for a split-brain patient to name something, he must see it ______?
In the right visual field.
The tree-like branches of a neuron that receive information from other neurons are called______?
dendrites
The ability to state a memory in words is termed___?
declarative memory
What happened to H.M (1953) when his hippocampus removed to treat servere epilepsy?
Intellect and language intact, working memory intact but severe impairment on forming new long-term memories. both anterograde and reterograde amnesia. Intact procedural memory but poor declarative memory (Semantic memory-specific facts, episodic memory-personal experience)Intact implicit memory but poor explicit memory
What does the case study of H.M (1953) suggest the hippocampus is important for?
New memories and declarative explicit memories, not important for procedural, implicit memories, old memories. However tissue from medial temporal cortex was also removed from H.M.
What did O'Kane (2004) find when he later checked the progress of patient H.M?
Patient H.M has now acquired knowledge of people who have become famous since his amnesia, and demonstrates semantic knowledge e.g. Lee Harvey Oswald the man who assassinated the president.
Who said 'Although H.M's semantic learning was clearly impaired the results provide robust unambiguous evidence that some new somantic learning can be supported by structures beyond the hippocampus proper'?
O'Kane (2004)
What did Broadbent et al (2004) conclude about the function of the hippocampus, based on his research testing animals with damaged hippocampus's performance on delayed matching samples tasks?
hippocampus is important for both spatial and recognition memory. However spatial memory performance requires more hippocampial tissue than does recognition memory.
What are the functions of the hippocampus?
declarative memory, spatial memory, configural learning, memory consolidation and binding information
What did Maguire et al(2000) study on london taxi driver's find?
London taxi drivers have larger hippocampi than non taxi drivers. PET showed activation when describing a route and those driving for longer had even large hippocampus, implies experience leads to growth.
What did Healy et al (2005) study of birds reveal about the hippocampus?
Birds' hippocampi seems to increase in size in birds along with the ability of spatial memory which is related to amount of food needed to be stored. Relate to evolutionary theory.
What is cofigural learning?
Remembering stimuli in relation to other stimuli
What is the role of the hippocampus in configural learning?
animals with damage can slowly learn configural tasks. Hippocampus 'binds' info in order (e.g. smell of smoke with sound of crackling). Cortex establishes this memory as important and later connects it with memory of the fire.
What does consolidation mean?
Process where recent memories are crystallised into a long term memory many researchers believe that episodic memories are initially stored in the hippocmpus and are slowly moved (or consolidated) into the neocortex- explains why H.M could remember childhood memories but not insidences a few years before the operation
What memory disorder is associated with the hippocampus?
Alzeimers disease the hippocampus isn one of the first regions to be damaged. First symptoms are memory problems and disorientation.
What did Lashley say about how the brain works?
cuts in rats brain only many many lesions slowed learning not any one lesion was responsible therfore suggests all parts of the cortex contribute equally to complex behaviours. Cortex works as a whole.
What is anterograde amnesia?
loss of memory for events that happened after the brain damage, (can also happen temporarily after too much alcohol)
what is reterograde amnesia?
loss of memory for events that happened a few years before brain damage.
What did Squire and Alvarez (1995) conclude about temporally graded reterograde amnesia?
Supports the idea that the hippocampus is involved in memory consolidation.
What causes Korsakoff's syndrome?
related to alcoholism and not eating-brain starved of vitamins. thiamin(vitimin b1) deficiency, thiamin is needed to metablise glucose (fuel for the brain)
What is the effect of Korsakoff's syndrome on the brain structure?
causes shrinkage of neurons throughout the brain, mamillary bodies, of the hypothalamus, parts of the hippocampus and the dorso medial thalamus (sends axons to prefrontal cortex). So widespread damage and because the pathway to the cortex is damaged 'executive functions' are affected.
What are the symptoms of Korsakoff's syndrome?
similar to prefrontal cortex damage, apathy, confusion, reterograde and anterograde amnesia. Some evidence working memory is affected (central executive). Better implicit than explicit memory. Because they lose executive control over memories they try to fill in the gaps- confabulations (usually positive and related to episoduc memories not semantic)
What did Grady et al (2001) conclude about Alzheimer's the amygdala and memory?
Alzeimers patients might use the amygdala more in memory, processing emotional content of faces more there was a positive association between amygdala activity and memory performance in the patients suggests a possible compensatory role for an emotion related network of regions.
How does Alzheimer's disease affect brain structure?
acculmalation of a protein called amyloid. Causes widespread atrophy (wasting away) of cerebral cortex (involved in executive control,storage) and hippocampus (consolidation, binding) and many other areas.
What are the symptoms of Alzheimer's disease?
Starts with minor forgetfulness progresses to severe memory loss, better procedural than declarative memory(e.g. can aquire new skills but can't remember learning), better implicit than explicit memory (but implicit is still impaired.
What are the cause of Alzheimer's disease?
associated with aging 5% of 65-74 years, 50% of those over 85.
Genetic component- Down's syndrome (3 copies of chromosome 21) always aquire alzheimers in middle age.
Environmental component- half of all cases have no know relatives with disease.
Yoruba people of Nigeria have high-risk genes, but lower rate of Alzheimers maybe due to low calorie, low fat, low salt diet.
What are the differences and similarities between alzheimers and korsakoffs syndrome?
both associated with widespread damage
Cortical damage and hippocampal damage.
Both lose pevious memories and abilities to form new ones.
Differences, more prefrontal cortex damage in Korsakoffs therefore confabulations.
What were Clive Wearing's symptoms after he severly damaged hippocampus and marginally damaged temporal and frontal lobes and amygdala, after contracting herpes?
Spends every day 'waking up' diary. Has only moment to moment conciousness, however he can still play the piano and conduct a choir though he has no memory of recieving a music education, this is because he still has an intact cerebellum, which is responsible for the maintanence of procedural memory.
What is James-Lange Theory of emotion (James, 1884)?
Scary event e.g lion> appraisal (feeling, cognition,action) run away> Fear
Rapid appraisal of the situation leading to action.
I am frightened, because I ran away.
I am angry, because I hit him.
link to sympathetic nervous system.
What is the evidence for James-Lange Theory (James, 1884)?
1.People with paralysis still report emotions BUT people with autonomic failure (No regulation of heart beat etc. ) report less intense emotion
2. Induced smiling, frowning etc. increases reported emotion (facial feedback hypothesis, stack et al. 1988)
So there is feedback between physiology and 'felt' emotion, but no evidence of causality
What were the results of the Iowa gambling task?
Autonomic activity(i.e. increased heart rate) alerts you to a problem before it is consciously registered.
Even if you don't get the rule, you feel more nervous taking red cards. Damage to prefrontal cortex and amygdala don't
What emotions are associated with the flight-or fight system (sympathetic nervous system)?
Fear associated with escape (Flight)
Anger associated with aggression (Fight)
What is the startle reflex?
the response to a sudden, load noise, very fast
Cochlea nucleus>pons>muscle tension in neck (protective)
Common measure of fear/anxiety because it can be used with both non-human animals and humans
Which brain areas affect the startle reflex?
Amygdala, damage disrupts the startle reflex, not by altering the response per se, but by imparing the animals ability to learn which stimuli are scary, so the amygdala enhances the startle reflex by helping conditioned responses to form.
What areas of the brain respond to fear?
sensory info> Amygdala> midbrain> pons
What did Berdoy et al (2000) find about Toxoplasma?
Parasite that reproduces in cats, infects rats and migates to the brain and damages the amygdala, rat does not condition to fear properly, approaches cat and gets eaten!
What did studies of Kluver-Bucy Syndrome in the 1900's find?
Amygdala damage produces tame, placid monkeys, approach snakes, approach dominant monkeys- sank to bottom of group.
Less afraid of approaching experimenters seemed to increase their motivation to approach and explore.
decreased inhibitions
How does the amygdala relate to fear in humans?
Seems to be involved in emotional processing in general.
Amygdala responds when people look at emotional expressions- also associated with felt emotion.
Amygdala responds to emotional stimuli that isn't identified consciously- stimuli flashed breifly- no conscious response but autonomic responses are triggered
What did Adams et al (2003) find in their study on gaze and direction of expression?
Amygdala seems to respond the most when fear is directed at you, and anger is averted.
So the amygdala is active when emotional processing is more complex.
What happens when the amygdala is damaged?
People still feel emotion but struggle with interpreting emotional info when it is ambiguous or subtle.
What did Adolph's (1998) find in facial perceptions of those with amygdala damage?
We make judgements about 'trustworthiness' (Winston et al, 2002).
People with amygdala damage regard all faces the same, don't form judgements about people.
What did Adolph (1995) find when he asked patients with amygdala damage to draw faces showing different emotions?
Couldn't depict fear, however Adolph et al (2005) follow up study found when asked to attend to the eyes, there was no problem, impairment seems to relate to attending to the eyes (more important for fear than happiness)
What did the eyes in the dark study find?
Amygdala responds more to fearful eye whites than happy eye whites.
How do drugs work?
both illeagal and legal drugs tend to imitate substances already present in our nevous system, particularly those that effect transmission at the synapse.
Why do drugs come mainly from plants?
produces these chemicals for their own purposes eg. to attract insects, to stop being eaten, or for their own processes.
Nervous systems of many animals are similar.
How do antagonists affect the synapse?
Inhibit transmission at the synapse
Block neurotransmitter
How do agonists affect the synapse?
Facilitate transmission at the synapse.
Increase effects of neurotransmitter, or mimic the neurotransmitter
What will happen if a drug has a high affinity for a receptor?
It will bind to that receptor (but may not activate the receptor)
What will happen if a drug has a high efficacy for a receptor?
It has a tendency to activate that receptor
What neurotransmitter do most drugs stimulate the release of?
dopamine
What area of the brain is often stimulated by drugs?
The nucleus accumbens (small subcortical area rich in dopamine receptors)
What processes to drugs initiate in the brain to cause activity in the nucleus accumbens?
Drug> Sustained bursts of dopamine (usually inhibitory)> Inhibits GABA (Inhibitory transmitter)> Increases activity in nucleus accumbens
Name two illeagal stimulant drugs?
Amphetamine, cocaine
are stimulants dopamine agonists or antaginists?
dopamine agonists
How does amphetamine (speed) work?
stimulates dopamine synapses by increasing the release of dopamine from presynaptic terminal
therefore accumulation of dopamine in the synaptic cleft.
How does Cocaine work?
Blocks the reuptake of dopamine, thus prolonging effects.
therefore accumalation of dopamine at the synaptic cleft.
What effect does increased dopamine in the synaptic cleft have on the brain?
Widespread reduction in activity in most of the brain (apart from nucleus accumbens)
Why do you experience increased arousal (excitement, confidence, alertness) when on stimulants according to Mattay et al (1996)?
Decreases 'background noise'
Why is incresed excitement followed by a crash on stimulants?
dopamine washes away, can't be replaced quick enough.
What are the effects of opiates(morphine, heroine)?
Increase relaxation, decrease sensitivity to pain
How do opiates (morphine and heroine) work?
Mimic endorphines (naturally occuring chemicals in the brain).
Opiates attach to specific endorphin receptors
- Inhibits GABA, so increases dopamine
-But also blocks a hindbrain area that usually releases norephinepherine
Reduction in norepinepherine reduces memory storage and reduces stress
How does Marijuana work?
contains cannabinoids
Binds to specific cannabinoid receptors (widespread in the brain)
1. Inhibit GABA release (Increase in dopamine release in nucleus accumbens)= perception of heightened awareness
2. Cannaboid receptors abundant in hypothalumus (feeding)= increased appetite
How does Botox (Botulinium toxin) work?
Deadly neurotoxin released by bacteria found in decaying food
antagonist
blocks the release of acetylocholine at neuromuscular junctions- paralysis.
But in small doses can be used to reduce muscle tremors and cosmetically.
What did the study of mice and dopamine production conclude?
drugs increase 'need' for the substance even if the experience is not pleasant.
Mice with increased dopamine production showed no more pleasure in food but made more effort to get it.
Mice with decreased dopamine production made less effort to get food but ate just as much
How does the nucleus accumbens become sensitized and what are the effects of this?
Becomes more sensitive to substances after repeated use.
Increased ability to release dopamine in response to that substance.
Reduces sensitivity to other things
How does withdrawl affect addiction?
Cravings for drug
Relapse causes increased sensitivity
User learns that the drug relieves distress and so craves it more during future withdrawl.
What is the definition of addiction?
continued use of a substance when it interferes with your life
What are the characteristics of type 1 alcoholism?
late onset (after 25)
gradual onset
equal for men and women
less severe
few relatives with alcoholism
What are the characteristics of type 2 alcoholism?
Early onset (before 25)
rapid onset
more men than women
severe
more relatives with alcoholism
How might genes influence alcoholism?
1.Coding for an increase in risk taking behaviour
2. Coding for an increased stress response therfore more likely to relapse after quitting.
Do sons of alcoholic fathers show predispositions to alcoholism?
1. Show less than average intoxication- tolerance to alcohol
2. Show greater decrease of stress when drinking
3. Slightly smaller amygdala so possibly increased risk taking
What are the characteristics of depression?
feelings of extreme sadness and helplesness
severe enough to interfere with daily life, and can last for weeks or months rather than days
the absence of happiness
how common is depression?
5% of adults have clinically significant depression
twice as commen in women than men
What causes depression?
moderate degree of heritability to depression (Fu et al, 2002)but not specific to depression- relatives also more likely to suffer from anxiety disorders, substance abuse bulimia etc.
More common among relatives of women with early onset depression (before 30) (Lyons et al. 1998)
Low serotonin turnover associated with aggression AND depression so genes controlling serotonin have been implicated.
What did Caspi et al (2003)conclude about depression and life experiences?
gene contolling the serotonin transporter protein
this protein controls the ability of an axon to reabsorb serotonin (recycling)
This seems to affect how people cope with life experiences
short and long types
If you have two short forms of the gene= more likely to have depression in response to stressful events
How many women have postnatal (post partum) depression?
20% (but only 0.1 have long lasting)
What did Murphy-Eberenz et al. (2006) conclude about post natal depression?
runs in families (therefore genetic propensity?)
What did Hall et al. (2006) conclude about post natal depression?
a normal reaction to childbirth
What is Unipolar disorder?
varying between normality and depression
What is bipolar disorder?
Varying between mania and depression (formally manic depression)
what is mania?
restless activity, excitement, confidence, rambling speech
What happens in the brain during mania?
increased metabolism (PET scans)
How is bipolar disorder treated?
lithium salts
Block synthesis of arachidonic acid (associated with brain inflammation)
What are the characteristics of seasonal affective disorder (SAD)?
depression usually associated with winter
common near the poles where the nights are long (circadian rythms)
less severe than major depression
How is bipolar disorder treated?
lithium salts
Block synthesis of arachidonic acid (associated with brain inflammation)
What are the characteristics of seasonal affective disorder (SAD)?
depression usually associated with winter
common near the poles where the nights are long (circadian rythms)
less severe than major depression
How is SAD treated?
Light therapy (affects biological clock)
What did Elbert (1995) find in the brains of muscians?
Larger cortial representation
More pronounced in musicians that sarted at an early age
What did Tyron (1934) find in selective breeding experiment with maze dull and bright rats?
after 8th generation of selective breeding no overlap of task effectiveness, evidence genes influence the development of behaviour
What did Cooper and Zubek (1958) find with environment and maze dull and bright rats?
Adult maze-dull rats only made more errors when raised in impoverished as opposed to enriched conditions therefore experience can overcome effects of genes
What are the problems of interpreting twin studies?
sometimes difficult to disentangle heritability and prenatal influences
Environmental factors can inactivate genes, inactivated gene passed on to next generation
Genetic differences promote psychological differences by influencing experience (multiplier effect)
How is SAD treated?
Light therapy (affects biological clock)
What did Elbert (1995) find in the brains of muscians?
Larger cortial representation
More pronounced in musicians that sarted at an early age
What did Tyron (1934) find in selective breeding experiment with maze dull and bright rats?
after 8th generation of selective breeding no overlap of task effectiveness, evidence genes influence the development of behaviour
What did Cooper and Zubek (1958) find with environment and maze dull and bright rats?
Adult maze-dull rats only made more errors when raised in impoverished as opposed to enriched conditions therefore experience can overcome effects of genes
What are the problems of interpreting twin studies?
sometimes difficult to disentangle heritability and prenatal influences
Environmental factors can inactivate genes, inactivated gene passed on to next generation
Genetic differences promote psychological differences by influencing experience (multiplier effect)
How is bipolar disorder treated?
lithium salts
Block synthesis of arachidonic acid (associated with brain inflammation)
How is bipolar disorder treated?
lithium salts
Block synthesis of arachidonic acid (associated with brain inflammation)
What are the characteristics of seasonal affective disorder (SAD)?
depression usually associated with winter
common near the poles where the nights are long (circadian rythms)
less severe than major depression
How is SAD treated?
Light therapy (affects biological clock)
What did Elbert (1995) find in the brains of muscians?
Larger cortial representation
More pronounced in musicians that sarted at an early age
What did Tyron (1934) find in selective breeding experiment with maze dull and bright rats?
after 8th generation of selective breeding no overlap of task effectiveness, evidence genes influence the development of behaviour
What did Cooper and Zubek (1958) find with environment and maze dull and bright rats?
Adult maze-dull rats only made more errors when raised in impoverished as opposed to enriched conditions therefore experience can overcome effects of genes
What are the problems of interpreting twin studies?
sometimes difficult to disentangle heritability and prenatal influences
Environmental factors can inactivate genes, inactivated gene passed on to next generation
Genetic differences promote psychological differences by influencing experience (multiplier effect)
What are the characteristics of seasonal affective disorder (SAD)?
depression usually associated with winter
common near the poles where the nights are long (circadian rythms)
less severe than major depression
How is SAD treated?
Light therapy (affects biological clock)
What did Elbert (1995) find in the brains of muscians?
Larger cortial representation
More pronounced in musicians that sarted at an early age
What did Tyron (1934) find in selective breeding experiment with maze dull and bright rats?
after 8th generation of selective breeding no overlap of task effectiveness, evidence genes influence the development of behaviour
What did Cooper and Zubek (1958) find with environment and maze dull and bright rats?
Adult maze-dull rats only made more errors when raised in impoverished as opposed to enriched conditions therefore experience can overcome effects of genes
What are the problems of interpreting twin studies?
sometimes difficult to disentangle heritability and prenatal influences
Environmental factors can inactivate genes, inactivated gene passed on to next generation
Genetic differences promote psychological differences by influencing experience (multiplier effect)
How is bipolar disorder treated?
lithium salts
Block synthesis of arachidonic acid (associated with brain inflammation)
How is bipolar disorder treated?
lithium salts
Block synthesis of arachidonic acid (associated with brain inflammation)
How is bipolar disorder treated?
lithium salts
Block synthesis of arachidonic acid (associated with brain inflammation)
What are the characteristics of seasonal affective disorder (SAD)?
depression usually associated with winter
common near the poles where the nights are long (circadian rythms)
less severe than major depression
How is SAD treated?
Light therapy (affects biological clock)
How is bipolar disorder treated?
lithium salts
Block synthesis of arachidonic acid (associated with brain inflammation)
What are the characteristics of seasonal affective disorder (SAD)?
depression usually associated with winter
common near the poles where the nights are long (circadian rythms)
less severe than major depression
What are the characteristics of seasonal affective disorder (SAD)?
depression usually associated with winter
common near the poles where the nights are long (circadian rythms)
less severe than major depression
What are the characteristics of seasonal affective disorder (SAD)?
depression usually associated with winter
common near the poles where the nights are long (circadian rythms)
less severe than major depression
How is SAD treated?
Light therapy (affects biological clock)
What did Elbert (1995) find in the brains of muscians?
Larger cortial representation
More pronounced in musicians that sarted at an early age
What did Tyron (1934) find in selective breeding experiment with maze dull and bright rats?
after 8th generation of selective breeding no overlap of task effectiveness, evidence genes influence the development of behaviour
What did Cooper and Zubek (1958) find with environment and maze dull and bright rats?
Adult maze-dull rats only made more errors when raised in impoverished as opposed to enriched conditions therefore experience can overcome effects of genes
What are the problems of interpreting twin studies?
sometimes difficult to disentangle heritability and prenatal influences
Environmental factors can inactivate genes, inactivated gene passed on to next generation
Genetic differences promote psychological differences by influencing experience (multiplier effect)
What did Elbert (1995) find in the brains of muscians?
Larger cortial representation
More pronounced in musicians that sarted at an early age
How is SAD treated?
Light therapy (affects biological clock)
What did Elbert (1995) find in the brains of muscians?
Larger cortial representation
More pronounced in musicians that sarted at an early age
What did Tyron (1934) find in selective breeding experiment with maze dull and bright rats?
after 8th generation of selective breeding no overlap of task effectiveness, evidence genes influence the development of behaviour
How is SAD treated?
Light therapy (affects biological clock)
What did Tyron (1934) find in selective breeding experiment with maze dull and bright rats?
after 8th generation of selective breeding no overlap of task effectiveness, evidence genes influence the development of behaviour
What did Cooper and Zubek (1958) find with environment and maze dull and bright rats?
Adult maze-dull rats only made more errors when raised in impoverished as opposed to enriched conditions therefore experience can overcome effects of genes
What are the problems of interpreting twin studies?
sometimes difficult to disentangle heritability and prenatal influences
Environmental factors can inactivate genes, inactivated gene passed on to next generation
Genetic differences promote psychological differences by influencing experience (multiplier effect)
What did Elbert (1995) find in the brains of muscians?
Larger cortial representation
More pronounced in musicians that sarted at an early age
What did Cooper and Zubek (1958) find with environment and maze dull and bright rats?
Adult maze-dull rats only made more errors when raised in impoverished as opposed to enriched conditions therefore experience can overcome effects of genes
What did Tyron (1934) find in selective breeding experiment with maze dull and bright rats?
after 8th generation of selective breeding no overlap of task effectiveness, evidence genes influence the development of behaviour
What did Cooper and Zubek (1958) find with environment and maze dull and bright rats?
Adult maze-dull rats only made more errors when raised in impoverished as opposed to enriched conditions therefore experience can overcome effects of genes
What are the problems of interpreting twin studies?
sometimes difficult to disentangle heritability and prenatal influences
Environmental factors can inactivate genes, inactivated gene passed on to next generation
Genetic differences promote psychological differences by influencing experience (multiplier effect)
What are the problems of interpreting twin studies?
sometimes difficult to disentangle heritability and prenatal influences
Environmental factors can inactivate genes, inactivated gene passed on to next generation
Genetic differences promote psychological differences by influencing experience (multiplier effect)