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54 Cards in this Set

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Classical conditioning
Aquiring a new response (the conditioned response) to a previously neutral stimulus (the conditioned stimulus) that reliably signals the arrival of an unconditioned stimulus.
Reflex
A stimulus-response pair in which the stimulus (the unconditioned stimulus) automatically elicits the response (the unconditioned response).
Unconditioned stimulus (UCS)
The stimulus in a reflex that automatically elicits an unconditioned response.
Unconditioned response (UCR)
The response in a reflex that is automatically elicited by the unconditioned response.
Conditioned stimulus (CS)
The stimulus that comes to elicit a new response (the conditioned response) in classical conditioning.
Conditioned response (CR)
The response that is elicited by the conditioned stimulus in classical conditioning.
Delayed conditioning
A classical conditioning procedure in which the conditioned stimulus precedes the unconditioned stimulus and remains present until after the unconditioned stimulus is presented so the the two stimuli occur together.
Trace conditioning
A classical conditioning procedure in which the conditioned stimulus precedes the unconditioned stimulus but it removed before the unconditioned is presented so the two stimuli do not occur together.
Aquisition
(in classical conditioning). Aquiring a new response (the conditioned response) to the conditioned stimulus
Extinction
(in classical conditioning). The diminishing of the conditioned response when the unconditioned stimulus no longer follows the conditioned stimulus.
Spontaneous theory
(in classical conditioning). A partial recovery in strength of the conditioned response following a break during extinction training.
Stimulus generalization
(in classical conditioning). The elicitation of the conditioned response to stimuli that are similar to the conditioned stimulus. The more similar the stimulus is to the conditioned stimulus, the stronger the response.
Stimulus discrimination
(in classical conditioning). The elicitation of the conditioned response only by the conditioned stimulus or only by a small set of highly similar stimuli that includes the conditioned stimulus.
Operant conditioning
Learning to associate behaviors with their conserquences. Behaviors that are reinforced (lead to satisfyinf consequences) will be strengthened, and behaviors that are punished (lead to unsatisfying consequences) will be weakened.
Law of effect
A principle developed by Edward Thorndike thats says that any behavior that results in satisfying consequences tends to be repeated and that any behavior that results in unsatisfying consequences tends not to be repeated.
Reinforcer
A stimulus that increases the probability of a prior response.
Punisher
A stimulus that decreases the probability of a prior response.
Reinforcement
The process by which the probability of a response is increased by the presentation of a reinforcer.
Punishment
The process by which the probability of a response is decreased by the presentation of a punisher.
Appetitive stimulus
A stimulus that is pleasant.
Aversive stimulus
A stimulus that is unpleasent.
Positive reinforcement
Reinforcement in which an appetitive stimulus is present.
Positive punishment
Punishment in which an aversive stimulus is presented.
Negative reinforcement
Reinforcement in which an aversive stimulus is removed.
Negative punishment
Punishment in which an appetitive stimulus is removed.
Primary reinforcer
A stimulus that is innately reinforcing.
Secondary reinforcer
A stimulus that gains its reinforcing property through learning.
Behavior modification
The application of classical and operant conditioning principles to eliminate undesireable behavior and to teach more desireable behavior.
Shaping
Training a human o animal to make an operant response by reinforcing successive approximations of the desired response.
Cumulative record
A record of the total number of operant responses over time that visually depicts the rate of responding.
Aquisition (in operant conditiong)
The strengthening of a reinforced operant response.
Extinction (in operant conditioning)
The diminishing of the operant response when it is no longer reinforced.
Spontaneous recovery (in operant conditioning)
The tempoary recovery of the operant response following a break during extinction training.
Discriminative stimulus
In operant conditioning, the stimulus that has to be present for the operant response to be reinforced.
Stimulus discrimination (in operant conditioning)
Learning to give the operant response only in the presence of the discriminative stimulus.
Stimulus generalization (in operant conditioning)
Giving the operant response in the presence of stimuli similar to the discriminative stimulus. The more similar the stimulus is to the discriminative stimulus, the higher the operant response rate.
Continuous schedule of reinforcement
In operant conditioning, reinforcing the desired operant response each time it is made.
Partial schedule of reinforcement
In operant conditioning, reinforcing the desired operant response only part of the time.
Partial-reinforcement effect
The finding that operant responsed that are reinforced on partial schedules are more resistant to extinction than those reinforced on a continuous schedule.
Fixed-ration schedule
A partial schedule of reinforcement in which the reinforcer is delivered each time a fixed number of responses are made. The fixed number can be any number greater than one.
Variable-ration schedule
A partial schedule of reinforcement in which the number of responses it takes to obtain a reinforcer varies on each trial but averages to a set number across trials.
Fixed-interval schedule
A partial schedule of reinforcement in which a reinforcer is delivered after the first response is given once a set interval of time has elapsed.
Variable-interval schedule
A partial schedule of reinforcement in which the time that must elapse on each trial before a response will lead to the delivery of a reinforcer varies from trial to trial but averages to a set time across trials.
Motivation
The set of internal and external factors that energize our behavior and direct it toward goals.
Drive-reduction theory
A theory of motivation which proposes that our behavior is motivated to reduce drives (bodily tension rates) created by unsatisfied bodily needs to return the body to a balanced internal state.
Incentive theory
A theory of motivation which proposes that our behavior is motivated by incentives, external stimuli that we have learned to associate with reinforcement.
Arousal theory
A theory of motivation which proposes that our behavior is motivated to maintain an optimal level of psychological arousal.
Yerkes-Dodson theory
A law describing the relationship between the amount of arousal and the performance quality on a task- increasing arousal up to some optimal level increases performance quality on a task, but increasing arousal past this point is detrimental to performance.
Extrinsic motivation
The desire to perform a behavior for external reinforcement.
Intrinsic motivation
The desire to perform a behavior for its own sake.
Overjustification effect
A decrease in an intrinsically motivated behavior after the behavior is extrinsically reinforced and then the reinforcement discontinued.
Instinctual drift
The tendency for an animal to drift back from a learned operant response to an innate instictual response to an object.
Latent learning
Learning that occurs but is not demonstrated until there is an incentive to do so.
Observational learning (modeling)
Learning by observing others and imitating their behavior.