Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

132 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Pattern of thoughts, emotion,and vehavior that results in personal distress or a significant impairment in a person's social or occupational functioning.
Infrequency (statistical infrequency)
You are considered abnormal in most people think differently than you. Poor criterion for abnormality since genious is abnormal yet highly valued.
Norm Violation
This is when you violate social norms. Your actions would be determined as bizarre, unusual, or disturbing to most people (ex. standing too close to someone).
Personal Suffering
Feeling distress as a sign of abnormality. May be due to being gay or death of a loved one and so it is also inadequate by itself.
Practial Approach (identifying abnormality)
Uses content, context, and consequences of the behavior as well as impaired functioning.
Biopsychosocial Model
Model that attributes psychopathology to three other causes: biological factors, psychological processes, and sociocultrual contexts.
Biological Factors
Illness, disruptions or imbalances in bodily processes, and gentic influences cause mental disorders. Includes the medical model and the neurobilogical model.
Psychological Processes
Wants, neds, emotions, learning experiences, and our way of looking at the world all can cause psychological disorders. (Psychological Model)
Sociocultural Context
Must look at the social and cultural context of the behavior to determine if it is abnormal.
Diathesis (Diathesis Model)
Whether or not a personactually develops symptoms of a disorder depends on the nature and amount of stess the person encounters. Therefore, inhereted biological tendencies for a certain disorder may only cause the disorder under the right amount of stress.
Classifies and categorizes mental disorders.
Axis I-V
I: major mental disorders
II: personality disorders or mental retardation
III: Medical conditions
IV: Psychosocial and environmental problems (death of loved one)
V: Score of 1-100 for functioning level
Phobia (Anxiety Disorder)
An intense, irrational fear of an object or situation that is not likely to be dangerous.
Specific Phobia
Fear and avoidance of heights, blood, animals, automobiles, or air travel and other specific stimuli.
Social Phobia
Anxiety about being criticized by others or acting ina way that is embarassing.
Fear of being away from a safe place.
General Anxiety Disorder
Excessive and long lasting anxiety that is not focused on any particular object or situtuation.
Panic Disorder
Disorder that causes panic attacks for no particular reason and can continue for years.
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)
A person will engage in compulsive repetitive acts to reduce the anxiety involved with the obsession.
Causes of Anxiety Disorders
Bilogical and Psychological Factors are involved.
Biological Factors (cause of Anxiety Disorders)
Most disorders run in families, so disorders may be learned and could also be genetic.
Psychological Factors (cause of Anxiety Disorders)
Psychological factors such as environmental stressors, cognitive processes and learning cause anxiety.
Somatoform Disorders
Psychological disorders that take a somatic (bodily) form. Ex. can't run because of anxiety and stress.
Conversion Disorder
A somatoform disorder where a person has blindness, paralysis, deafness, and other sensory disorders w/o physical symptoms.
Hypocholdriasis (Somatoform Disorder)
A unjustified fear that you have cancer, AIDS, or other severe diseases.
Somatization Disorder (Somatoform Disorder)
Many physical problems rather than one illness without any physical signs
Pain Disorder
The feeling of pain w/o any physical signs.
Dissociative Disorders
Problems with memory, consciousness, and identity for long periods of time.
Dissociative Fugue
Sudden loss of memory, adoption of a new identity in a new locale.
Dissociative Amnesia
Sudden loss of memory but no new identity in a new locale.
Dissociative Identity Disorder (formerly multiple personality disorder)
As if the person has multiple personalities that write, act, speak, and have impulses that are different from each other.
Electroconvulsive Therapy
Not considered a type of psychotherapy.
Can prescibe drugs and has their doctorate.
Has their doctorate but cannot prescribe drugs.
Free Association
Allowing a patient to speek freely with whatever comes to mind in order for the patient to realize their problem on their own (Freud).
Aversive Conditioning
Aversive conditioning reduces undesirable behaviors by using classical conditioning principles to associate an unpleasant feeling with those behaviors.
Placing a person in close proximity to their fear to show them that no harm will come.
Positive Reinforcement
Giving praise to promote a desired behavior.
Using an adverse stimulus after an undesirable behavior occurs to try and stop that behavior (ex. electical shock).
Congruence refers to a consistency between a therapist's feelings and actions; it is sometimes called genuineness. In the question, we are given no indication that Marsha's concern is genuine.
Unconditional Positive Regard
The therapist is demonstrating unconditional positive regard because the client is being treated as a valued person, despite his or her behavior in previous sessions.
Gestalt Therapy
Gestalt therapists pay attention to nonverbal cues and they often ask clients to engage in imaginary dialogues and other role-playing exercises.
a technique in which a client watches other people perform desired behaviors in order to learn them vicariously.
Object Relations Therapy
Object relations therapy focuses on the role of maladaptive early attachment patterns in the development of psychological disorders.
Psychotherapy and Drugs
Always more effective than either one on their own
When is ECT used (Electroconvulsive Therapy)
ECT is used for patients whose depression is severe, who cannot tolerate or do not respond to antidepressants, or who are at high risk for suicide.
Mildest side effects
May cause tardive dyskinesia, a serious and irreversible disorder of the nervous system.
Which is more effective antidepressants or psychotherapy
antidepressants and psychotherapy are equally effective.
Different Psychologists
Client Centered
study of unconscious conflicts and their effects on patients.
Classical Psychoanalysis
Freud started with hypnosis to treat hysteria (ex. blind w/o physical signs). Moved to free association.
Manifest Content
Obvious content of dreams, the actual images and events.
Latent Content
Reflects the wishes, impulses, and fantasies that the dreamers's defense mechanisms keep out of consciousness.
Childhood fellings and conflicts about parents are transfered to the therapist.
Short-term dynamic psychotherapy (object relations therapy)
A much more active therapy in which the therapist is more involved and includes a person or thing that has emotional significance to the patient (object relations therapy).
Interpersonal Therapy
Therapy that deals with interpersonal problems after early childhood such as a death in the family or job loss.
psychoanalytically oriented psychotherapy and time-limited dynamic psychotherapy
Classical Psychoanalysis in less sessions using most of Freudians beliefs but with less rules and more goals.
Supportive Expressive Thereapy
Therapists look for a reacurring conflict or core conflict that may cause their behavior.
Humanistic Psychotherapy
Emphasizes the way people interpret events in their life. Focuses on natural growth and disorders try to inhibit that growth due to a lack of knowledge. Clients are responsible for their actions and thoughts.
Client Centered Therapy
Humanistic Psychotherapy. Developed by Carl Rogers and is based on the idea that the clients will figure their problems out with the unconditional positive regard, empathy, and congruence from the therapist.
Unconditional Positive Regard
Treating the client as a valued person no matter what.
An emotional understanding of the clients feelings
A paraphrased summary of the clients words to give feeling. Used in Client Centered Therapy.
Or genuineness, it refers to a consistancy between the therapist's feelings and their actions.
Classical Psychoanalysis
Freud used free association after hypnosis to help the patient find thier own problems.
Manifest Content, Latent Content
Obvious actions and images in a dream, the underlying wishes, impulses and fantasies that the dream means.
Action out love, anger, etc. towards the therapist that stem from parents and childhood feelings.
Short-term Dynamic Psychotherapy (object therapy)
Contemporary psychoanalysis (neo-freudian). Uses more intemate patient time and a uses an important figure to speed up psychotherapy.
Interpersonal Therapy
Helps clients explore and overcome events after early childhood like lost loved one or lost job.
Psychoanalytically oriented psychotherapy and time limited dynamic psychotherapy
Uses classical methods in much less time by using more flexible rules and by setting goals for the client.
Supportive Expressive Therapy
Uses a core conflict or reacurring conflict to speed up the psychotherapy.
Humanistic Psychotherapy
Focuses on the way people interpret the events that happen in their life.
Client Centered Theory
Developed by Carl Rogers. Allowed clients to talk about what they want while giving unconditional positive regard, empathy, and congruence.
Restating what the patient said so that the therapist seems interested.
Gestalt Theory
Developed by Frederick and Laura Perls. People create their own versino s of reality and their psychological growth depends if that reality is what actually exists. The client becomes more self aware and able to help themselves.
Behavior Therapy
Idea that behavior is learned and so this process can be reversed using therapy.
Systematic Desensitization
Visualizes a fearful event while remaining relaxed. Uses progressive relaxation training and desensitization heirarchy (increasingly fearful events).
In Vivo Desensitization
Use of real life fears to desesitize based on the same heirarchy. Use of virtual reality to maintain control.
The use of a therapist to show a client the proper way of dealing with psychological issues. Participant modeling is when live people and gradual practice is used.
Assertiveness Training and Social Skills Training
Use of modeling to help in social situations.
Positive Reinforcement
The use of positive stimulus to give a desired actions.
If a person is acting out to get attention then you could use extinction to not give that attention and their behavior will not pay off and they will stop.
Keeping a patient in a feared but harmless situation untill they become desensitized to it.
Aversion Therapy
Aversion conditioning is used in this therapy to associate nausia and other bad side effects with an action.
Negative responce after a negative action occurs. Ex. Shock a person if they yell.
Cognitive Behavior Therapy
Allows the patient to realize their irrational behavior and to correct it themselves once it is out in the open.
Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT)
Developed by Albert Ellis. Psychological problems are a result of how people think about events. Ellis would identify self defeating beliefs and uses modeling, encouragement, and logic to show the client how to rephrase the thought.
Cognitive Restructuring
Setting up new beliefs once the incorrect ones are realized. Used in Cognitive Behavior Therapy.
Cognitive Therapy
Aaron Beck. Many psychological disorders are due to an error of logic.
Group Therapy
Treatment of several unrelated clients under the guidance of a therapist. These groups are usually organized around a certain problem (Alcohol).
Reduce psychotic symptoms, phenothiazines, chlorpromazine, Largactil, parkinson's desease like symptoms, tardive dyskinesia (TD) is the worst symptom and is an irreversible disorder of the motor system.
Clozapine (Clozaril)
Same as neuroleptics but not TD. Can cause agranulocytosis a deadly blood disease.
Causes TD but reduces seditation.
Risperidone, Olanzapine, Quetiapine, Ziprasidone
No TD, No agranulocytosis, still helps schitzo's
MAOIs, TCAs, Prozac
Antidepressants with decreasing side effects.
Social Psychology
Study of how peoples thoughts and feelings influence their behavior.
Social Cognition
The mental processes that people have when precieving and interacting with groups.
Self Concept
The beliefs of who we are and the characteristics we posses.
Self Esteem
How we place ourselves in comparison with others around us. How worthy we claim to be as human beings.
Temporal Comparison
Comparison of how we were in the past compared to how we are now.
Social Comparison
A way of comparing ourselves with others around us.
Reference Groups
We usually compare ourselves to people like us.
Downward social comparison
comparing oneself to someone lower than them
Upward social comparison
comparing oneself to someone who is better than you.
relative deprivation
This results from an unfavorable comparison of youself with others. It is the belief that you deserve more no matter how much you are getting.
self schemas
mental representations of a person's beliefs and views about themselves. Unified = failure in all areas, Differentiated = failure in just that area
Social Perception
The process through which people interpret information about others.
the process people use to describe their behavior.
The degree to which other people's behavior is similar to the actor's. Other people behave the same way as your friend.
The degree to which the behavior is the same over time and/or other situations.
The extent to which the actor's response to one situation stands out from responses to similar situations.
Fundamental Attribution Error
The tendancy to overattribute peoples actions to internal factors.
Ultimate Attribution Error
In-group does something good = hard working out-group does something good = luck
Actor-Observer Bias
When people overattribute their own actions to external factors
Self-Serving Bias
Internal factors for sucess and external factors for failure.
Unrealistic Optimism
The tendancy to believe that positive events are more likely to happen to yourself than to others and that negative events are more likely to happen to others.
Unique Invulnerability
Another self protective function that makes us think that nothing bad can happen to us even though evidence says otherwise.
The tendancy to think, feel, or act positively or negatively toward objects in our environment. 3 components include cognitive, affective, and behavioral.
Elaboration likelihood model
Framework for understanding when and how the person, the content, and the audience affect attitude.
Peripheral Route
Attitude is affected by the persuasion cues such as confidence, attractiveness, etc.
Central Route
Attitude change is due to the central content of the message.
Cognitive Dissonance Theory
People want their attitudes to be consistant with others and with their behavior.
Self-Perception Theory
Daryl Bem. People look at their actions under certain circumstances and say that their attitude must have been coinciding with that.
perceptions beliefs and expections a person has about members of some group/
positive or negative attitude toward an individual based simply on membership in some group.
Motivational Theories
Explains why authoratarian type people need to reject the out-group to feel safer. People are motivated to enhance their own self-esteem.
Cognitive Theories
When people group large numbers of people into groups to deal with social complexity.
Learning Theories
Prejudice is learned and people use what they learn to group people.
Interpersonal Attraction
Environment: close physical proximity.
Similarity: People like those who they perceive to be similar to themselves.
Physical Attractiveness: people like others of similar attractiveness to themselves.
Factor in intimacy where thoughts, emotions, and behaviors of one person affect the thoughts, emotions, and behaviors of the other.
Passion, Intimacy, and Commitment