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59 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Psychology
The science of behavior and mental processes.
Biological Perspective
A research perspective whose major explanatory focus is how the brain, nervous system, and other psysiological mechanisms produce behavior and mental processes.
Cognitive Perspective
A research perspective whose major explanatory focus is how mental processes, such as perception, memory, and problem solving, work and impact behavior.
Behaviroal Perspective
A research perspective whose major explanatory focus is how external environmental events condition observable behavior.
Sociocultural Perspective
A research perspective whose major explanatory focus is how other people and the cultural context impact on behavior and mental processes.
Hindsight Bias
-"I knew it all along phenomenon"
-The tendency, after learning about an outcome, to be overconfident in one's ability to have predicted it.
Descriptive Methods
Research methods whose main purpose is to provide objective and detailed descriptions of behavior and mental processes.
Naturalistic Observation
A descriptive research method in which the behavior of interest is observed in the natural setting, and the researcher does not intervene in the behavior being observed.
Participant Observation
A descriptive research method in which the observer becomes part of the group being observed.
Case Study
A descriptive research method in which the researcher studies an individual in depth over an extended period of time.
Survey Research
A descriptive research method in which the researcher uses questionares and interviews to collect information about the behavior, beliefs, and attitudes of particular groups of people.
Population
The entire group of people that a researcher is studying.
Sample
The subset of a population that actually participates in a research study.
Random Sampling
A sampling technique that obtains a represenative sample of a population by ensuring that each individual in a population has an equal opprotunity to be in the sample.
Correlational Study
A research study in which two variables are measured to determine if they are related (how well either one predicts the other)
Psychology
The science of behavior and mental processes.
Biological Perspective
A research perspective whose major explanatory focus is how the brain, nervous system, and other psysiological mechanisms produce behavior and mental processes.
Cognitive Perspective
A research perspective whose major explanatory focus is how mental processes, such as perception, memory, and problem solving, work and impact behavior.
Behaviroal Perspective
A research perspective whose major explanatory focus is how external environmental events condition observable behavior.
Sociocultural Perspective
A research perspective whose major explanatory focus is how other people and the cultural context impact on behavior and mental processes.
Hindsight Bias
-"I knew it all along phenomenon"
-The tendency, after learning about an outcome, to be overconfident in one's ability to have predicted it.
Descriptive Methods
Research methods whose main purpose is to provide objective and detailed descriptions of behavior and mental processes.
Naturalistic Observation
A descriptive research method in which the behavior of interest is observed in the natural setting, and the researcher does not intervene in the behavior being observed.
Participant Observation
A descriptive research method in which the observer becomes part of the group being observed.
Case Study
A descriptive research method in which the researcher studies an individual in depth over an extended period of time.
Survey Research
A descriptive research method in which the researcher uses questionares and interviews to collect information about the behavior, beliefs, and attitudes of particular groups of people.
Population
The entire group of people that a researcher is studying.
Sample
The subset of a population that actually participates in a research study.
Random Sampling
A sampling technique that obtains a represenative sample of a population by ensuring that each individual in a population has an equal opprotunity to be in the sample.
Correlational Study
A research study in which two variables are measured to determine if they are related (how well either one predicts the other).
Variable
Any factor that can take on more than one value.
Correlation coeffifcient
A statistic that tells us the type and the strength of the relationship between two variables. The sign of the coefficient (= or -) positive or negative, respectively. The absolute value of the coefficient (0.0 to 1.0) represents the strength of the correlation, with 1.0 being the maximum strength.
Positive correlation
A direct relationship between two variables.
Negative correlation
An inverse relationship between two variables.
Scatterplot
A visual depiction of correlational data in which each data point represents the scores on the two variables for each participant/
Third-variable problem
A explanation of a correlation between two variables in terms of another (third) variable that could possibly be responsible for the observed relationship between the two variables.
Random assignment
A control measure in which participants are randomly assigned to groups in order to equalize participant characteristics across the various groups in an experiment.
Independent variable
In an experiment, the variable that is a hypothesized cause and thus is manipulated by the experimenter.
Dependent variable
In an experiment, a variable that is hypothesized to be affected by the independent variable and thus is measured by the experimenter.
Experiment
A research method in which the researcher manipulates one or more independent variables and measures their effect on one or more dependent variables while controlling other potentially relevant variables.
Experimental group
In an experiment, the group exposed to the independent variable.
Control group
In an experiment, the group not exposed to the independent variable.
Operational definition
A description of the operations or procedures that a researcher uses to manipulate or measure a variable.
Placebo effect
Improvement due to the expectation of improving because of recieveing treatment.
Placebo group
A control group of participants who believe that are recieving treatment, but who are only recieving a placebo.
Placebo
An inactive pill or treatment that has no known affects.
Inferential Statistical Analyses
Statistical analyses that allow researchers to draw conclusions about the results of a study by determining the probability the results are due to random variation (chance). The results are statistically significant if this probability is .05 or less.
Double-blind procedure
A control measure in an experiment in which neither the experimenter nor the participants know which participants actually recieve treatment and which recieve a placebo.
Descriptive statistics
Statistics that describe the results of a research study in a concise fashion.
Frequency distribution
A depiction, in a table or figure, of the number of participants (frequency) recieving each score for a variable.
Mean
The numerical average of a distribution of scores.
Median
The score positioned in the middle of a distribution of scores when all of the scores are arranged from lowest to highest.
Mode
The most frequently occuring score in a distribution of scores.
Range
The difference between the highest and the lowest scores in a distribution of scores.
Standard deviation
The average extent that the scores vary from the mean for a distribution of scores.
Normal distribution
A frequency distribution that is shaped like a ball. About 68% of thes scores fall within 1 standard deviation of the mean, about 95% within 2 standard deviations, and over 99 percent within 3 standard deviations of the mean.
Percentile rank
The percentage of scores below a specific score in a distribution of scores.
Right-skewed distribution
An symetric frequency distribution in which there are some unusually high scores that distort the mean to be greater than the median.
Left-skewed distribution
An asymetric frequency distribution in which there are some unusually low scores that distort the mean to be less than the median.