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91 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
definition of psychology
scientific study of behavior and mental processes
how psyc got started
scholars wanted to find out how the mind works and how our bodies related to our minds
empiricism
the view that knowledge comes from experience through sense and that science should rely on observation and experimentation
willhelm wundt

date

significance

who was wundts student
1879

responsibile for the beginning of psychology

titchener
evolution of psychology
introspection to obers
nature-nurture debate
every psychological event is also a bilogical one.
different perspectives that scientists study human behaviors
neuroscientific
evolutionary
behavior genetics
psychodynamic
behavioral
cognitive
social cultural
3 different fields of psychology
basic research
applied research
clinical applications
strucuralism

who
aim to discover the elements of the mind

titchener
funtionalist

who
explorations of down to earth emotions, memories, will power, habits, moment-to-moment streams of consciousness

james
humanistic psychology
emphasizes the importance of current environmental influences on our growth potential, and the importance of meeting our needs for love and acceptance.
nature nurture
debate on whether human traits develop through experience of do we come equipped with them?
natural selection
ability for an organism to survive and reproduce in a particular environment
levels of analysis
differnt ideas that offer complementary outlooks
biopsychological approach
combines ideas of biological, psychological and social cultural factors
counseling vs clinical psychologists
help people cope with challenges

asses and treat disorders
why introspection is unreliable
1. we dont know
2. sometimes we think we know, we are wrong
3. when we are wrong, we are often very confident we are correct.
4. natural laws are often not intuitive
theory and observation relation
the circle between the two

one influences the other
hindsight bias
i knew it all along phenomenon
2 good traits to have
humility
critical thinking
theory
set of principles or behaviors that explain an event
hypotheses
testable predictions
operational definition
variable that is measurable
operational definitions should be ___ and ___
reliable
valid
culture influencing behavior
specific attitudes and beavhiors may be different, but underlying principles are still the same
does gender matter
there are differences, but both genders and similarly human
why we study animals
simplicity of similar systems
psychologys view on animals
best scenario is onewhere we are concerned for humans and sensitive to animals that serve the welfare of both
is psychology value free?
no
is psychology dangerous?
has the power to decieve, but its purpose is to enlighten
ethical principles developed by the american psychological associataion (4)
1. obain consent
2. protect from harm, discomfort
3. treat information confidentially
4. fully explain the research afterwards (debrief)
case study
def
-
study one individual in depth

hard to generalize results
survery
def
+
-
less in depth option where people report behavior or opinions

+easy to do

-people can lie
people just dont know
wording of questions
loss of control (extraneous factors)
naturalisitic observation
def

-
study natural condtions

loss of control of confounds
lots of behaviors you cant observe
correlation, correlation coefficent
compare one behavior to another

-1<r<1

|R|= strength of relationship (r=1 is perfect)
correlation and causation?
correlation is not causation

3rd factor
illusory correlations
we may notice random coincedences, we may forget that they are actually random
experimentation
manipulates a factor to determine its effect
double blind procedure
experiment with control and placebo
placbeo effect
no manipulations
experimental condition
person recieves treatment
control condtion
placebo
independent variable

dependent variable
one factor independent of others

several factors depending on what happens during the experiment
statistical information
doubt big, round, undocumented numbers. apply everyday reasoning
central tendency
great range in numbers due to one far off result
measures of variation (2)
range
standard deviation
statistical significance
represents the likleyhood of it happening not the importance of the result
what if an experiment violates ethical guidelines?
measure costs against benefits
the best study
a combination of several studies to produce converging operations
the brains information system is composed of...
nuerons
dendrites
recieve informaions
axons
fibers that pass information to the branches of the axon
myelin sheath

what happens if it is destroyed
fatty tissue that covers axons

multiple sclerosis- loss of muscle control
polarized state

action potential

refractory period
axon has more - than +

electrical charge that travels down the axon, let the "+'s" rush in

+ pushed back out
synapse/synaptic gap
space between the axon and next dendrite
chemical messengers

how are excess messengers dealt with?

what releases them
neurotransmitters

reputake

synaptic vesicles
plasticity
ability for the brain to adapt to other functions
endorphins
cause for a feel good feeling
agonists vs antagonists
excite vs inhibit

increase, decrease neurotransmitter release, or manipulate reputake
blood brain barrier

why it is bad
enables brain to filter out unwanted chemicals

makes designing a drug hard
central nervous system

peripheral nervous system
brain and spinal cord

links central nervous system with bodys sense receptorsw
sensory nuerons
motor nuerons

how each system communicates
sense vs body control

interneurons
somatic nervous system
voluntary body control
autonomic nervous system
like auto pilot, but can be overrriden
sympathetic nervous system
increase bodily senses
parasympathetic nervous system
calms senses
endocrine system
releases hormones, resulting in a bodily response
adrenal glands

where
what
on top of kidneys
releases adrenaline
glial cells
in cortex, provide nutrients and insulating myelin, mop up neurotransmitters
corpus callosum
axon fibers connecting the brains two hemispheres
basic biological functions are controlled by the...
hindbrain, forebrain
cerebral cortex (main brain)

functions of:
frontal lobe
temporal lobe
occipital lobe
parital lobe
-behaviors
-speech
-vision, recognizing objects
-spatial info, percieving and learning
lower brain

functions of:
medulla
pons
cerrebellum
-basic functions:hearbeat, breathing
-sleep cycles
-coordination
motor cortex
controls movement
primary somatosensory cortex
recieves information
auditory cortex
guidatory info
visual cortex
sight
wenickes area
comprehension of auditory innput
brocas area
produce speech
motor cortex
ability to speak
thalamus
relays sensory info
hippocampus
memory
hypothalamus
reward, punishment
amygdala
emotions, especially agression and fear
pituitoary gland
master gland
ways to study the brain
pictures
manipulate brain
EEG
single cell
autopsy
recovering from brain damadge
plascticity
cells are able to self repair
new cells are able to grow
how genes control behavior
provide the code for creating protein molecules, the bulding block of physical development
indentical vs fraternal twins
1 vs 2 eggs
heretability or a trait
to which extent traits can related to personalities
molecular genetics
quest to identify how specific genes influence behavior