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66 Cards in this Set

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long term memory
this type of memory is stored in the cortex and there may be no upper limit for how long these memories can be stored in the brain.
independent variable
consists of a control and experimental group; the method or treatment given to the participants in the study.
confabulation
the tendency to fill in the missing pieces of our memory with details that sound plausible.
recency effect
the information learned at the end of a list or training session is more likely to be recalled than information from the middle.
contingency
required for associative learning to occur; refers to the attribute of a stimulus, behavior or event predicting the future occurance of another stimulus, behavior or event.
correlational design
a design that consists of two or more dependent variables and no independent variables in which the subjects were chosen randomly. This design allows the researcher to determine relationships.
ANOVA
also known as the F test; an inferential statistic used to analyze experimental design when you have more than two groups.
dependent variable
the behavior, trait or characteristic that is measured in a study; for example: errors, activity, estrogen levels or temperature.
extinction
the gradual elimination of a behavior acquired through classical or operant conditioning.
conditioned drug response
a classically conditioned response that produces a change in our physiology that mimics that of a drug (e.g., the high produced when heroine addicts inject water).
fixed interval
a reward is delivered based on a fixed amount of time that has elapsed (e.g., being paid by the hour).
negative reinforcement
the removal of an unesireable stimulus or event that increases the probability that a behavior will occur in the future.
skewed sample
a sample that does not follow the normal distribution. The mean is not accurate because a few low scores (negatively skewed) or a few high scores (positively skewed) distort the sample mean.
positive punishment
the addition of any aversive stimulus or event that decreases the probability that a behavior will occur in the future.
population
all members of a group; for example: all women in the United States, or all persons with schizophrenia, or all persons with pancreatic cancer.
operant conditioning
a type of associative learning in which behaviors are acquired through the use of punishment or reward. First developed by the American psychologist James Watson, the field was expanded and made popular by the research of the American psychologist B. F. Skinner.
backward conditioning
a type of classical conditioning in which the onset of the unconditioned stimulus preceeds the onset of the conditioned stimulus. This type of conditioning is often used to demonstrate the importance of contingency (which is absent) since learning does not occur.
secondary reinforcement
a type of reward that is used to obtain primary reinforcement (e.g., tokens, or money).
forward conditioning
a type of classical conditioning in which the onset of the conditioned stimulus preceeds the onset of the unconditioned stimulus.
preclinical trial
experiments conducted with animals that are designed to determine the safety and efficacy of a treatment before proceeding to trials with human participants.
nonassociative learning
a type of learning in which contiguity and contingency are missing.
normal distribution
a distribution in which the mean, median and mode are equal to each other.
contiguity
required for associative learning to occur; the temporal presentation of events, stimuli and behaviors must occur relatively close together in time in order for associative learning to occur. For example, for learning to occur in classical conditioning the CS and UCS must occur within 1800 ms of each other.
negative punishment
the removal of any desireable stimulus or event that results in a decrease the probability that a behavior will occur in the future.
positive reinforcement
the administration of a desireable stimulus or event that increases the probability that a behavior will occur in the future.
sample
a subgroup drawn from a well defined population that is used whenever it is not possible to study the entire population.
simultaneous conditioning
a type of classical conditioning in which the onset and duration of the conditioned and the unconditioned stimuli are identical. This type of conditioning is often used to demonstrate the importance of contingency (which is absent) since learning does not occur.
FDA
the abbreviation for the government agency in the United States that is responsible for determining the safety of food and drug products.
REM Sleep
is the stage when dreaming occurs. It is the believed to be required for the formation of long-term memories.
informed consent
a document which outlines the participants rights as well as the risks and benefits of participating in a research study. All research with human subjects must include this document which must be signed by the participant and the researcher.
stimulus
any identifiable physical component in the enviornment (e.g., a sound, a light, touch); plural: stimuli
reward/reinforcement
any stimulus or event that increases the probability that a behavior will occur in the future.
variable ratio
a reward is delivered based on the number of completed behaviors, but the required number of behaviors needed to get one reward varies.
correlation coefficient
also known as Pearson's r; a statistic that is used to determine the relationship between two dependent variables.
schedule of reinforcement
the method used to deliver rewards during operant conditioning.
phase II clinical trial
experiments conducted with small numbers of persons with a disease. The goal is to determine toxicity and whether the treatment is effective.
unconditioned stimulus
a stimulus that naturally produces a reflex or unconditioned response.
primary reinforcement
a type of reward that directly reduces motivation for a basic physiological need (e.g., food, water).
serial position effect
a curve showing that the relative order in which information is learned influences a person's ability to recall that information. Specifically that information learned at the beginning and end of a list or training session is more likely to be recalled than information from the middle.
case study
a design that may have properties of either the correlational or experimental research design, however, there is only one subject in the experimental group. This study is only chosen when it is difficult to obtain subjects.
conditioned taste aversion
a classically conditioned aversion to a specific food that occurs when a person gets sick within a day of eating a novel food.
phase III clinical trial
experiments conducted with as many persons with a disease in as many different populations as is clinically significant. The goal is to determine toxicity and whether the treatment is effective. These are generally long term studies relative to the other types of trials.
t-test
an inferential statistic used to analyze an experimental design when you have only two groups in a single independent variable.
habituation
a temporary gradual reduction in the startle response that occurs if the startle stimulus is not linked to some other event or stimulus. A type of nonassoicative learning in which contiguity and contingency are missing.
Lichert Scale
a rating scale that is used to rate responses to questions in psychological research. The scale has a neutral center value and 5 to 9 total choices. For example the following is a five point scale: strongly disagree-disagree-no opinion-agree-strongly agree.
fixed ratio
a reward is delivered based on a fixed number of completed behaviors.
pimary effect
the information learned at the beginning of a list or training session is more likely to be recalled than information from the middle.
spontaneous recovery
the sudden reappearence of a behavior that had been previously eliminated with extinction trials.
sensitization
a temporary gradual increase in the startle response (and similar stimuli) that occurs if the startle stimulus is not linked to some other event or stimulus. A type of nonassoicative learning in which contiguity and contingency are missing.
unconditioned response
the reflex or natural behavior that is produced following the delivery of an unconditioned stimulus.
hypothesis
the prediction tested in a research study. In an experimental design, the ____ is the predicted effect of an independent variable on the dependent variable. In a correlational design, the ____ is the predicted relationship between two dependent variables.
delay conditioning
a type of classical conditioning in which the onset of the conditioned stimulus preceeds the onset of the unconditioned stimulus and the two stimuli coterminate. This type of conditioning is dependent on neurons in the cerebellum.
phase I clinical trial
experiments conducted with healthy human participants that are designed to determine the toxicity level of a drug or new medical treatment before proceeding to trials with human participants that have the disease of interest.
sensory memory
a brief memory stored in sensory neurons lasting no more than 18 ms.
IRB
the Institutional Review Borad; the local agency (can be at a corporation, university or government research agency) that is responsible for ensuring that all research involving human subjects (at the entity) meets federal standards.
associative learning
a type of learning that requires both contiguity and contingency.
classical conditioning
a type of associative learning in which a conditioned stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus. First developed by the Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov.
conditioned stimulus
a neutral stimulus that acquires the properties of an u ____ as the result of classical conditioning.
experimental design
a design that consists of at least one independent variable and one dependent variable in which the subjects were chosen randomly and randomly assigned to the independent variable. The most powerful design because it allows the researcher to determine cause and effect.ex
random sample
a sample in which every member of the population has an equal chance of being selected for participation in the experiment.
survey
is also called a questionnaire. A research tool used to collect large amounts of data in a short period of time. It involves a series of questions based on a Lichert scale.
conditioned response
a behavior that is identical to an u ____ but is made in response to the delivery of a conditioned stimulus instead of an unconditioned stimulus.
token economy
used by behavior therapists to modify abnormal behavior using tokens (a type of secondary reinforcement) to obtain primary reinforcement (e.g., food, phone time, drink).
trace conditioning
a type of classical conditioning in which the onset and termination of the conditioned stimulus preceeds the onset of the unconditioned stimulus. This type of conditioning is dependent on neurons in the hippocampus.
IACUC
the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee; the local agency (can be at a corporation, university or government research agency) that is responsible for ensuring that all research involving animals (at the entity) meets federal standards. In addition, this group also monitors the care of the animals.
variable interval
a reward is delivered based on the amount of time that has elapsed, but the amount of time that must pass to get one reward varies.