• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/38

Click to flip

38 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Describe mood v affect
pt's subjective experience v objective signs of emotional state
illusion v hallucination
misperception of stimulus/something's there v perception of non-existent stimulus
obsession v compulsion
recurrent,distressing thought (never an action) v repetitive actions performed to relieve anxiety (act can be a thought, but more often is a physical action)
circumstantial v tangential v loose association
giving excessive details but not necessarily changing topic v wandering from topic to topic where each transition following logically, often forgetting the question that was asked v jumping from topic to topic without clear connections (All 3 related to thought process)
word salad v clanging
nonsensical grammatical constructions where words are thrown out v words rhyme with one another
hypnaogoic v hypnopompic hallucinations
during the period going to sleep v during the period of awakening. both commonly occur in healthy individuals; hypnoaGOgic (GO to sleep) & hypnoPOmpic (POpping up from sleep)
Define delirium
acute onset; characterized by inattention (can't repeat days of week in reverse, serial 7s, etc); waxing and waning course, and reversal of sleep-wake cycle
T/F: delirium can be caused by conditions other than general medical conditions
False
Define Dementia
amnesia + loss of cognitive function defined as one of the following: aphasia, agnosia, apraxia, poor executive function (includes sequencing, organizing, abstraction, planning)
Alzheimer's type vs vascular dementia
A: MCC of dementia; often linear decline; definitive dx requires TISSUE vs V: step-wise decline corresponding with descrete vascular insults
Dementia vs Pseudodementia
demented patients tend to confabulate (they don't want to be seen as demented) vs pseduodementia occurs as a result of depression (tend to over-exaggerate their deficits)
mild cognitive impairment v benign senescent forgetfullness
MCI: sub-syndromal dementia (only amnesia, agnosia, aphasia, apraxia, executive dysfunction) BSF: normal aging (forgot where placed the keys, etc.)
Suicide attempt v parasuicidal gestures
SA: intent of dying; PG:aimed at getting attention (but succeed sometimes!)
active v passive suicidal ideation
Active = "i want to die" or "i want to kill myself"; Passive = "i'd rather be dead" or "things would be better off if i weren't here"
Anticholinergic toxidrome
hot as a hare, dry as a bone, red as abeet, mad as a hatter, blind as a bat!
Anticholinergic v sympathomimetic (cocaine, amphetamines, etc) toxidromes
Same. Except that in sympathomimetics, patients will also be diaphoretic. PSNS post synaptic neurons use ACh and SNS PSN use norepi except at sweat glands (Ach is used instead!)
What is the triad of wernicke's encephalopathy? Immediate treatment?
confusion, ataxia, opthalmoplegia (usually abducens (6th CN)). Give IV Thiamine (B1), which is involved in the metabolism of glucose.
Triad for normal-pressure hydrocephalus.
urinary incontinence, dementia, ataxia (wet, wacky, wobbly).
List the dopamine (DA) pathways that mediate EPS. Tetrad?
EPS: nigrostriatal (think substantia nigra - degenerated in PD) --> acute dystonic rxn, akathisia, parkinsonism, TD
List the dopamine pathway that mediate +sx in schizophrenia
excessive DA in mesolimbic system
List the dopamine pathway that mediates -sx in schizophrenia
mesocortical: low DA responsible for -sx in schizophrenia. This explains why typical antipsychotics (solely DA antagonism) do not improve -sx
List the dopamine pathway that mediate hyperprolactinemia
tuberoinfundibular (DA = pRL inhibitor) --> antipsychotics (esp haloperidol and atypical, respiradone) can cause gynecomastia & galactorrhea.
List tetrad for Narcolepsy
excessive daytime sleepiness, hypnoGOgic hallucinations, cataplexy (loss of motor tone in context of emotion i.e. laughing/crying) & sleep paralysis
4 D's of malpractice
duty (presence of MD-pt relationship), dereliction/deviation (from standard of care), damage, direct causation. "derelection of duty directly caused damages"
5 types of schizophrenia in DSM-IV-TR
Catatonic, disorganized, paranoid, residual, undifferentiated.
catatonic schizophrenia
excessive/inhibited psychomotor activity
disorganized schizophrenia
prominent disorganization (speech or behavior)
Which schizophrenia has the worst prognosis?
disorganized type
"burnt out" schizophrenia of later life; prominent negative sx
residual type
Undifferentiated schizophrenia
Not catatonic, disorganized, paranoid or residual?
Which type of schizophrenia has the BEST prognosis?
Paranoid Schizophrenia: prominent delusions/hallucinations
5 core symptoms (criteria A) of schizophrenia
two of the following are required > 1 month: delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, disorganized behavior, negative symptoms
3 exceptions to the requirement for meeting criterion A of schizophrenia
1. bizarre delusions 2. AH of two voices giving a running commentary of pt's life or 3. AH of two voices conversing with each other sufficient to meet criterion A.
6 types of delusions in DSM IV-TR
persecutory (same as paranoia), erotomanic (belief that someone of higher stature is in love with pt), somatic (e.g. internal organis rotting) gradiose (common with psychosis associated with mania), Jealous, Mixed
6 specifiers for MDD in DSM IV
with: 1) psychotic features (treat the "depression" and psychosis will resolve, versus schizoaffective d/o); 2) melancholic features (anhedonia, early morning awakening, excessive guilt, mood does not reach with pleasure stimuli; 3) Atypical features (hyperphagia/hypersomnia, reactive mood, rejection sensitivity); 4) seasonal pattern (SA d/o, tx is light therapy or SSRI); with 5) catatonic features, or with 6) postpartum onset (w/in 4 weeks of parturition)
Give two examples projective tests
1) Rorschach test (inkblots): especially useful for identifying psychotic d/o or paranoia 2) Thematic apperception test: pt tells stories about depressing pictures
Give 3 examples of intelligence test and their appropriate age ranges.
WAIS (ages 16-75; includes verbal and visuospatial sections; average 100 w / SD of 15) Standord-Binet Test (age 2-23); Wechsler intelligence scale for children-revised (WISC-R) ages 6- 16
What is the MMPI-2?
Minnesota multiphasic personality inventory: pathology + patterns of behavior