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27 Cards in this Set

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Developmental psychology
the field in which psychologists study how people grow and change throughout the lifespan—from conception, through infancy, childhood, adolescence, and adulthood, and until death
Maturation
the automatic and sequential process of development that results from genetic signals
Critical period
a stage or point in development during which a person or animal is best suited to learn a particular skill or behavior pattern
Reflex
an involuntary reaction or response
Infancy
the period from birth to the age of two years
Childhood
the period from two years old to adolescence
Stranger anxiety
fear of strangers
Separation anxiety
distress when an infants mother leave
Contact comfort
the instinctual need to touch and be touched by something soft
Imprinting
the process by which some animals form immediate attachments during a critical period
Authoritative
with authority; parents combine warmth with positive kind of strictness
Authoritarian
parents believe in obedience for its own sake
Self-esteem
the value or worth that people attach to themselves
Unconditional positive regard
parents love and accept their children for who they are—no matter how they behave
Conditional positive regard
show love only when the children behave in certain acceptable ways
Assimilation
the process by which new information is placed into categories that already exist
Accommodation
change brought about because of new information
Postconventional moral reasoning
basing judgments based upon one’s personal values, no conventional standards
Conventional moral reasoning
basing judgments in terms of whether an act conforms to conventional standards of right and wrong
Preconventional moral reasoning
basing judgments on the consequences of behavior
formal-operational stage
the final cognitive stage; people can think abstractly
Concrete-operational stage
the third stage of cognitive development; children begin to show signs of adult thinking, but cannot think about abstract ideas
Egocentrism
the inability to see another person’s point of view
Law of Conservation
the law that says that key properties of substances, such as their weight, volume, and number, stay the same even if their shape or arrangement are changed
Preoperational stage
the second stage of cognitive development; children begin to use words and symbols to represent objects
Object permanence
the understanding that objects exist even when they cannot be seen or touched
Sensorimotor stage
• the first stage of cognitive development is characterized mainly by learning to coordinate sensation and perception with motor activity